A list of the vascular flora of East-the-Water, Bideford, Devon

Covering all, or part of: East-the-water, Monad SS4526, eastern side of river (Loc. Id:2958); East-the-water, Monad SS4626 (Watkins Way & Manteo Road area) (Loc. Id:3106); East-the-water, SS4625, SE side of East-the-Water (Loc. Id:3208); East-the-water, Monad SS4525, east of river, Kynochs Bank and Tarka Trail (Loc. Id:3210); East-the-water, Monad SS4526, Ethelwynne Brown Close (Loc. Id:3216); East-the-water, Monad SS4526, Brunswick to Clarence Wharves (Loc. Id:3217); East-the-water, Monad SS4725, business park, Portabello etc. (Loc. Id:3352)

Recorded by R I & S H Kirby. Determined by R I Kirby (unless the individual record notes indicate otherwise)

Frequency and status information is based on Smith, R., Hodgson, B. & Ison. J. A New Flora of Devon. Exeter: The Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and the Arts, 2016, with additions by R. I. Kirby where required. A species frequency reflects how common it is in Devon, whilst its status is that for the UK. Where rare species have clearly been introduced by human activity they are usually of less significance. Some Devon Notables are rarer elsewhere than they are in Devon, or are typical of valuable habitats. As a rough guide, Neophytes are plants believed to have been introduced (by human activity) since 1500 AD (an arbitrary cut-off date roughly linked to 1492 when Columbus reached America), Archeophytes are believed to be introductions that pre-date 1500 AD, and Native plants are believed to have established themselves without human intervention.

In addition to wild and naturalized plants, this list includes plants that have escaped from cultivation into non-horticultural non-domestic environments such as waste-ground, pavements or road gutters. Also listed are plants that, whilst they may have been accidentally or deliberately introduced, are now established as part of a wild or semi-wild environment, as is often the case for hedgerow or woodland trees. One record, for Berginia, concerns a plant originally found growing in a waste-ground context, but that has now been preserved despite the planting of an orchard around it (so its current context is not nearly as wild as was when recorded).

  1. Acer campestre, L., Maple, Field [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  2. Acer platanoides, L., Maple, Norway. Probably about two year old seedling. A. platanoides has been used for street landscaping in the area so probably spread from that. [Occasional, neophyte]
  3. Acer pseudoplatanus, L., Sycamore [Very common, neophyte]
  4. Achillea millefolium, L., Yarrow [Very common, native]
  5. Aegopodium podagraria, L., Ground-elder [Common, archeophyte]
  6. Aesculus hippocastanum, L., Chestnut, Horse [Frequent, neophyte]
  7. Agrimonia eupatoria, , Agrimony, Common [Frequent, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  8. Agrostis capillaris, L., Bent, Common [Common, native]
  9. Agrostis stolonifera , L., Bent, Creeping [Common, native]
  10. Aira caryophyllea, L., Hair-grass, Silver [Frequent, native]
  11. Ajuga reptans, L., Bugle [Common, native]
  12. Alcea rosea, L., Hollyhock. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation. Well established plant, flowering at the base of a wall 10m from the likely garden source [Considered very rare when truly established in a wild context, neophyte]
  13. Alliaria petiolata, (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, Mustard, Garlic [Common, native]
  14. Allium schoenoprasum, L., Chives, SS 458 268. Three plants established in the cracks in block paving, one of which was had reached flowering size. Probably escaped from local cultivation. [Very rare, native]
  15. Allium triquetrum, L., Leek, Three-cornered [Frequent, neophyte] [Prone to dominate if not controlled.]
  16. Alnus cordata, , Alder, Italian, SS 457 266. Several well established 1-2m saplings, self sown in weed-suppressing gravel and scattered up to 50 to the north of a group planted as ornamental trees at the grid ref given. Also one further sapling on Clarence Wharf about 50m to the south. [Rare, neophyte]
  17. Alnus glutinosa, (L.) Gaertn., Alder [Very common, native]
  18. Alopecurus pratensis, L., Foxtail, Meadow [Common, native]
  19. Amelanchier lamarckii, F .G. Schroed, Juneberry, SS 455 259. Single bush, much reduced by scrub 'control', but re-growing [Very rare, neophyte]
  20. Anagallis arvensis subsp. arvensis, L., Pimpernel, Scarlet [Common, native]
  21. Angelica sylvestris, L., Angelica, Wild [Common, native]
  22. Anisantha sterilis, L., Brome, Barren [Common, archeophyte]
  23. Anthoxanthum odoratum, L., Vernal Grass, Scented [Common, native]
  24. Anthriscus sylvestris, (L.) Hoffm., Parsley, Cow [Very common, native]
  25. Antirrhinum majus, L, Snapdragon. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation. Growing on the face of the sea wall [Occasional, neophyte]
  26. Aphanes arvensis, L., Parsley-piert [Common, native]
  27. Aphanes australis, Rydb., Parsley-piert, Narrow [Common, native]
  28. Apium nodiflorum, (L.) Lag., Fool's-water-cress [Common, native]
  29. Aquilegia vulgaris, L., Columbine. Single plant in a hedgerow and remote from nearest garden. Gareden escapes are more frequent. [Frequent, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  30. Arabidopsis thaliana, (L.) Heynh., Cress, Thale [Frequent, native]
  31. Arctium minus, (Hill) Bernh., Burdock, Lesser [Common, native]
  32. Armeria maritima, Mill., Thrift [Frequent, native]
  33. Arrhenatherum elatius, (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl, Oat Grass, False. Including var, bulbosum. [Common, native]
  34. Artemisia vulgaris, L., Mugwort [Common, native]
  35. Arum italicum subsp. italicum, , Lords-and-Ladies, Italian (typical subspecies), SS 457 266. Single small leave in an amenity lawn [Occasional, neophyte]
  36. Arum maculatum, L., Cuckoo Pint [Common, native]
  37. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, L., Spleenwort, Black [Very common, native]
  38. Asplenium ruta-muraria, L., Wall Rue [Common, native]
  39. Asplenium scolopendrium, (L.) Newman, Hart's Tongue Fern [Very common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  40. Asplenium trichomanes, L., Spleenwort, Maidenhair [Common, native]
  41. Aster tripolium, L., Aster, Sea [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  42. Athyrium filix-femina, (L.) Roth, Lady fern [Common, native]
  43. Atriplex patula, L., Orache, Common [Common, native]
  44. Atriplex portulacoides , L., Sea-purslane [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  45. Atriplex prostrata, Boucher ex DC., Orache, Spear-leaved [Frequent, native]
  46. Avena fatua, L., Oat, Wild [Frequent, archeophyte]
  47. Avena sativa, L., Oat [Frequent, casual alien]
  48. Barbarea intermedia, Boreau, Winter-cress, Medium-flowered. [Frequent, neophyte]
  49. Barbarea verna, (Mill.) Asch., Winter-cress, American [Frequent, neophyte]
  50. Barbarea vulgaris, W.T. Aiton, Winter-cress [Frequent, native]
  51. Bellis perennis, L., Daisy [Very common, native]
  52. Berberis darwinii, Hook., Barberry, Darwin's, SS 458 269. Two plants growing on the sea wall. Also occurs on the adjacent Tarka Trail. [Very rare, neophyte]
  53. Bergenia crassifolia, (L.) Fritsch, Elephant-ears, SS 457 265. Relic of dumping, originally growing on waste-ground, but still retained after the area was planted with fruit trees as a community orchard [Considered very rare when truly established in a wild context, neophyte]
  54. Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, (L.) Arcang., Beet, Sea [Frequent, native]
  55. Blechnum spicant, (L.) Roth, Hard Fern [Very common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  56. Bolboschoenus maritimus , (L.) Palla, Club-rush, Sea [Occasional, native]
  57. Brachypodium sylvaticum, (Huds.) P. Beauv., Brome, False [Common, native]
  58. Brassica napus subsp. oleifera, (DC.) Metz., Oil-seed Rape [Frequent, neophyte]
  59. Brassica nigra, (L.) W.D.J. Koch, Mustard, Black [Frequent, native]
  60. Brassica oleracea var. viridis, L., Kale, SS 463 268. Reports of var. viridis are nationally rare, but this is probably down to under-reporting at the variety level. Subsequently found that a farmer was growing this a fodder crop a mile or so away [Not in New Flora (2016), cultivated variety]
  61. Briza maxima, L., Quaking-grass, Greater [Occasional, neophyte]
  62. Bromopsis ramosa, (Huds.) Holub, Brome, Hairy. Subsp. ramosus [Frequent, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  63. Bromus hordeaceus, L., Brome, Soft [Common, native]
  64. Buddleja davidii, Franch., Buddleia [Frequent, neophyte] [Prone to dominate if not controlled.]
  65. Bupleurum subovatum, , Thorow-wax, False, SS 459 263. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation. A single plant as a weed on an area of cleared but un-planted ground [Considered very rare when truly established in a wild context, neophyte]
  66. Calendula officinalis, L., Marigold, Pot [Occasional, neophyte]
  67. Calystegia sepium, (L.) R. Br., Bindweed, Hedge [Common, native]
  68. Calystegia silvatica, (L.) R. Br., Bindweed, Greater, including the rarer subsp. silvatica [Frequent, neophyte]
  69. Campanula portenschlagiana, Schult., Bellflower, Adria. In a street wall at least 10m from the nearest garden [Frequent, neophyte]
  70. Campanula poscharskyana, Degen, Bellflower, Trailing. Established in the cracks in a very badly managed pavement [Frequent, neophyte]
  71. Capsella bursa-pastoris, (L.) Medik., Shepherd's Purse [Common, archeophyte]
  72. Cardamine corymbosa, , Bittercress, New Zealand, SS 465 266 [Very rare, neophyte]
  73. Cardamine flexuosa, With., Bittercress, Wavy [Common, native]
  74. Cardamine hirsuta, L., Bittercress, Hairy. [Common, native]
  75. Cardamine pratensis, L., Lady's Smock [Common, native]
  76. Carduus crispus, L., Thistle, Welted [Occasional, native]
  77. Carduus tenuiflorus, Curtis, Thistle, Slender [Occasional, native]
  78. Carex divulsa subsp. divulsa , Stokes, Sedge, Grey (typical subspecies) [Frequent, native]
  79. Carex extensa, Gooden., Sedge, Long-bracted [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  80. Carex flacca, Schreb., Sedge, Glaucous [Frequent, native]
  81. Carex nigra, (L.) Reichard, Sedge, Common [Common, native]
  82. Carex otrubae, Podp., Sedge, False Fox. [Frequent, native]
  83. Carex pendula, Huds., Sedge, Pendulous [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  84. Carex remota, L., Sedge, Remote [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  85. Carex spicata, Huds., Sedge, Spiked. Showing the characteristic wine-red tints [Occasional, native]
  86. Carex sylvatica, Huds., Sedge, Wood [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  87. Catapodium rigidum subsp. rigidum, (L.) C.E.Hubb., Fern-grass (typical subspecies) [Frequent, native]
  88. Centaurea cyanus, L., Cornflower. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation [Occasional, archeophyte] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  89. Centaurea nigra, L., Knapweed [Very common, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  90. Centaurea nigra x debeauxii, -, Knapweed, hybrid [Distribution uncertain, native]
  91. Centaurea scabiosa, L., Knapweed, Greater [Occasional, native]
  92. Centaurium erythraea, Rafn, Centaury [Frequent, native]
  93. Centranthus ruber, (L.) DC., Valarian, Red [Common, neophyte]
  94. Cerastium diffusum, , Mouse-ear, Sea [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  95. Cerastium fontanum , Baumg., Mouse-ear [Very common, native]
  96. Cerastium glomeratum, Thuill., Mouse-ear, Sticky [Common, native]
  97. Cerastium tomentosum, , Snow-in-summer. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation. [Occasional, neophyte]
  98. Chaerophyllum temulum, L., Chervil, Rough [Common, native]
  99. Chamerion angustifolium, (L.) Holub, Willowherb, Rosebay [Common, native]
  100. Chenopodium album, L., Fat Hen [Common, native]
  101. Chenopodium ficifolium, Sm., Goosefoot, Fig-leaved [Occasional, archeophyte] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  102. Chenopodium polyspermum, L., Goosefoot, Many-seeded [Frequent, archeophyte]
  103. Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, L., Yellow-saxifrage, Opposite-leaved [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  104. Circaea lutetiana, L., Enchanter's Nightshade [Common, native]
  105. Cirsium arvense, (L.) Scop., Thistle, Creeping [Very common, native]
  106. Cirsium palustre, (L.) Scop., Thistle, Marsh [Very common, native]
  107. Cirsium vulgare, (Savi) Ten., Thistle, Spear [Very common, native]
  108. Clematis vitalba, L., Old-man's Beard [Frequent, native]
  109. Clinopodium ascendens, (Jord.) Samp., Calamint, Common [Frequent, native]
  110. Clinopodium vulgare, L., Basil, Wild [Frequent, native]
  111. Cochlearia anglica, L., Scurvy-grass, English [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species, Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  112. Cochlearia danica, L., Scurvy-grass, Danish [Frequent, native]
  113. Cochlearia officinalis, L., Scurvy-grass, Common [Frequent, native]
  114. Conium maculatum , L., Hemlock [Common, archeophyte]
  115. Convallaria majalis, L., Lily-of-the-valley, SS 459 269. Remote from gardens, but probably dumped [Considered rare when truly established in a wild context, native]
  116. Convolvulus arvensis, L., Bindweed, Field [Frequent, native]
  117. Conyza canadensis, (L.) Cronquist, Fleabane, Canadian [Frequent, neophyte]
  118. Conyza floribunda, Kunth, Fleabane, Bilbao's [Frequent, neophyte]
  119. Conyza sumartrensis, (Retz.) E. Walker, Fleabane, Guernsey [Frequent, neophyte]
  120. Cornus sanguinea, L., Dogwood [Frequent, native]
  121. Cortadaria selloana, (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn., Pampas Grass. Small plants below blooming size [Occasional, neophyte]
  122. Corylus avellana, L., Hazel [Very common, native]
  123. Cotoneaster horizontalis, Decne, Cotoneaster, Wall, SS 458 267. [Frequent, neophyte]
  124. Cotoneaster simonsii, Baker, Cotoneaster, Himalayan [Frequent, neophyte]
  125. Crataegus monogyna, Jacq., Hawthorn [Very common, native]
  126. Crepis capillaris, (L.) Wallr., Hawk's-beard, Smooth [Common, native]
  127. Crepis vesicaria, L., Hawk's-beard, Beaked [Frequent, neophyte]
  128. Crithmum maritimum, L., Samphire, Rock [Frequent, native]
  129. Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (= aurea x pottsii), (Lemoine) N.E. Br., Montbretia [Common, neophyte]
  130. Cymbalaria muralis, P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., Toadflax, Ivy-leaved [Common, neophyte]
  131. Cynosurus cristatus , L., Dog's Tail, Crested [Common, native]
  132. Cyperus longus, L., Galingale [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  133. Cytisus scoparius, (L.) Link, Broom [Common, native]
  134. Dactylis glomerata, L., Cocksfoot [Very common, native]
  135. Datura stramonium, L., Thorn-apple, SS 467 262. In weedy roadside grass [Rare, neophyte]
  136. Daucus carota, L., Carrot, Wild [Frequent, native]
  137. Deschampsia cespitosa, (L.) P. Beauv., Hair-grass, Tufted [Common, native]
  138. Digitalis purpurea, L., Foxglove [Common, native]
  139. Dipsacus fullonum, L., Teasel [Frequent, native]
  140. Dryopteris affinis, (Lowe) Fraser-Jenk., Male-fern, Golden Scaly [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  141. Dryopteris borreri, (Newman) Newman ex Oberh. & Tavel, Male-fern, Borrer's Scaly [Occasional, native]
  142. Dryopteris dilatata, (Hoffm.) A. Gray, Buckler Fern, Broad [Very common, native]
  143. Dryopteris filix-mas, (L.) Schott, Male Fern [Very common, native]
  144. Elytrigia atherica, (Link) Kerguélen, Couch, Sea [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  145. Elytrigia repens, (L.) Desv. ex Nevski, Couch, Common [Common, native]
  146. Epilobium ciliatum, Raf., Willowherb, American [Common, neophyte]
  147. Epilobium hirsutum, L., Willowherb, Great [Common, native]
  148. Epilobium montanum, L., Willowherb, Broad-leaved [Very common, native]
  149. Epilobium obscurum, Schreb., Willowherb, Short-fruited [Common, native]
  150. Epilobium parviflorum, Schreb., Willowherb, Hoary [Common, native]
  151. Epilobium tetragonum, L., Willowherb, Square-stalked [Frequent, native]
  152. Equisetum arvense, L., Horsetail, Field [Common, native]
  153. Erigeron acris, L., Fleabane, Blue [Occasional, native]
  154. Erigeron karvinskianus, DC., Fleabane, Mexican [Frequent, neophyte]
  155. Erodium moschatum, (L.) L'H r., Stork's-bill, Musk [Occasional, archeophyte] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  156. Erysimum cheiri, (L.) Crantz, Wallflower [Occasional, archeophyte]
  157. Eschscholzia californica, Cham., Poppy, Californian [Occasional, neophyte]
  158. Euonymus europaeus, L., Spindle [Common, native]
  159. Eupatorium cannabinum, L., Hemp-agrimony [Common, native]
  160. Euphorbia characias subsp. characias, L., Spurge, Mediterranean, SS 458 265. Several plants on an old quarry face [Very rare, neophyte]
  161. Euphorbia helioscopia, L., Spurge, Sun [Frequent, archeophyte]
  162. Euphorbia lathyris, L., Spurge, Caper [Occasional, archeophyte]
  163. Euphorbia oblongata, Griseb., Spurge, Balkan, SS 461 267.  [Not in New Flora (2016), neophyte]
  164. Euphorbia peplus, L., Spurge, Petty [Frequent, archeophyte]
  165. Fagus sylvatica, L., Beech [Very common, native]
  166. Fallopia convolvulus , (L.) Á. Löve, Bindweed, Black [Frequent, archeophyte]
  167. Festuca ovina, L., Fescue, Sheeps [Frequent, native]
  168. Festuca rubra agg., L., Fescue, Red [Very common, native]
  169. Ficaria verna, L., Celandine, Lesser [Very common, native]
  170. Filipendula ulmaria, (L.) Maxim., Meadowsweet [Common, native]
  171. Foeniculum vulgare, Mill., Fennel [Frequent, archeophyte]
  172. Fragaria vesca, L., Strawberry, Wild [Common, native]
  173. Fraxinus excelsior, L., Ash, European [Very common, native]
  174. Fuchsia magellanica, Lam., Fuchsia. Small plant established in a crack in a dry-stone wall [Occasional, neophyte]
  175. Fumaria capreolata, L., Fumitory, White Ramping. Subsp. babingtonii [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  176. Fumaria muralis, Sond. ex W.D.J. Koch, Fumitory, Common Ramping [Common, native]
  177. Fumaria officinalis, L., Fumitory, Common [Frequent, native]
  178. Galeopsis tetrahit, L., Hemp-nettle, Common [Frequent, native]
  179. Galium album, L., Bedstraw, Hedge [Common, native]
  180. Galium aparine, L., Cleavers [Very common, native]
  181. Galium odoratum, (L.) Scop., Woodruff. On top of a wall, looking to have self-sown there as an escape [Frequent, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  182. Galium palustre subsp. palustre, L., Bedstraw, Marsh (marsh subspecies) [Common, native]
  183. Galium verum, L., Bedstraw, Ladies [Frequent, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  184. Geranium columbinum, L., Crane's-bill, Long-stalked [Frequent, native]
  185. Geranium dissectum, L., Crane's-bill, Cut-leaved [Common, archeophyte]
  186. Geranium lucidum, L., Crane's-bill, Shining [Common, native]
  187. Geranium molle, L., Crane's-bill, Dove's-foot [Common, native]
  188. Geranium pyrenaicum, Burm. f., Crane's-bill, Hedgerow [Frequent, archeophyte]
  189. Geranium robertianum, L., Herb Robert [Very common, native]
  190. Geranium rotundifolium, L., Crane's-bill, Round-leaved [Frequent, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  191. Geranium sanguineum, L., Crane's-bill, Bloody, SS 457 266. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation. [Considered rare when truly established in a wild context, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  192. Geranium x oxonianum (endressii x versicolor), Yeo, Crane's-bill, Druce's, SS 459 268. [Rare, neophyte]
  193. Geum urbanum, L., Herb Bennet [Very common, native]
  194. Gladiolus communis subsp. byzantinus, (Mill.) D.C.V. Douin, Gladiolus, Byzantine. [Occasional, neophyte]
  195. Glaux maritima, L., Milkwort, Sea [Occasional, native]
  196. Glechoma hederacea, L., Ground-ivy [Very common, native]
  197. Glyceria declinata, Bréb., Sweet-grass, Small [Frequent, native]
  198. Glyceria fluitans, (L.) R. Br., Sweet-grass, Floating [Common, native]
  199. Gnaphalium uliginosum, L., Cudweed, Marsh [Common, native]
  200. Hedera helix, L., Ivy, English [Very common, native]
  201. Hedera hibernica, (G. Kirchn.) Bean, Ivy, Atlantic. [Very common, possibly native]
  202. Helminthotheca echioides, L., Ox-tongue, Bristly [Frequent, native]
  203. Heracleum sphondylium, L., Hogweed [Very common, native]
  204. Holcus lanatus, L., Yorkshire-fog [Very common, native]
  205. Holcus mollis, L., Soft-grass, Creeping [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  206. Hordeum murinum, L., Barley, Wall [Frequent, native]
  207. Humulus lupulus, L., Hop. Golden, so possibly a relic of cultivation or soil dumping, as on a waste patch. [Frequent, native]
  208. Hyacinthoides non-scripta, (L.) Chouard ex Rothm., Bluebell [Very common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  209. Hyacinthoides x massartiana (non-scripta x hispanica), Geerinck, Bluebell, hybrid [Frequent, neophyte]
  210. Hypericum androsaemum, L., Tutsan [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  211. Hypericum perforatum, L., St John's-wort, Perforate [Common, native]
  212. Hypericum pulchrum, L., St John's-wort, Slender [Occasional, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  213. Hypericum tetrapterum, Fr., St John's-wort, Square-stalked [Common, native]
  214. Hypochaeris radicata, L., Cat's-ear [Very common, native]
  215. Ilex aquifolium, L., Holly [Very common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  216. Inula conyzae, (Griess.) Meikle, Ploughman's Spikenard [Frequent, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  217. Iris foetidissima, L., Iris, Stinking [Frequent, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  218. Iris pseudacorus, L., Iris, Yellow Flag [Common, native]
  219. Juncus articulatus, L., Rush, Jointed [Common, native]
  220. Juncus bufonius, L., Rush, Toad [Common, native]
  221. Juncus conglomeratus, L., Rush, Compact, including the much rarer var. subuliflorus [Common, native]
  222. Juncus effusus, L., Rush, Soft [Very common, native]
  223. Juncus gerardii, Loisel., Rush, Saltmarsh [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  224. Juncus inflexus, L., Rush, Hard [Frequent, native]
  225. Juncus maritimus, Lam., Rush, Sea [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  226. Kickxia elatine, (L.) Dumort., Fluellen, Sharp-leaved [Frequent, archeophyte] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  227. Lactuca serriola, L., Lettuce, Prickly [Occasional, archeophyte]
  228. Lamiastrum galeobdolon subsp. argentatum, (Smejkal) Stace, Yellow Archangle (Spotted Leaved) [Common, neophyte]
  229. Lamium purpureum, L., Dead-nettle, Red [Common, archeophyte]
  230. Lapsana communis, L., Nipple-wort [Very common, native]
  231. Lathyrus latifolius, , Everlasting-pea, Broad-leaved [Occasional, neophyte]
  232. Lathyrus pratensis, L., Vetchling, Meadow [Very common, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  233. Lathyrus sylvestris, L., Everlasting-pea, Narrow-leaved, SS 455 256. Large clumps alongside Tarka Trail and on adjoining wasteground. [Occasional, native]
  234. Lavandula angustifolia, MIll., Lavender, Garden. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation. Small plants growing as weeds amongst block paving 30 m from nearest garden source. [Not included in New Flora (2016), neophyte]
  235. Lemna minor, L., Duckweed, Common [Frequent, native]
  236. Leontodon saxatilis, Lam., Hawkbit, Lesser [Frequent, native]
  237. Lepidium didymum, L., Swine-cress, Lesser [Common, neophyte]
  238. Lepidium heterophyllum, Benth., Pepperwort, Smith's [Occasional, native]
  239. Leucanthemum vulgare, Lam., Daisy, Ox-eye [Common, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  240. Leycesteria formosa, Wall., Honeysuckle, Himalayan. [Frequent, neophyte]
  241. Ligustrum vulgare, L., Privet, Wild [Common, native]
  242. Linaria purpurea, (L.) Mill., Toadflax, Purple [Frequent, neophyte]
  243. Linaria vulgaris, Mill., Toadflax, Common [Common, native]
  244. Linum bienne, Mill., Flax, Pale [Occasional, native]
  245. Lobularia maritima, (L.) Desv., Alison, Sweet. On various areas of poorly maintained pavement [Occasional, neophyte]
  246. Lolium perenne, L., Rye-grass, Perennial [Very common, native]
  247. Lonicera japonica, Thunb., Honeysuckle, Japanese, SS 456 257. Well over 100m from any gardens and occupying a limited area, so not likely to have spread from a garden [Rare, neophyte] [Prone to dominate if not controlled.]
  248. Lonicera nitida, E. H. Wilson, Honeysuckle, Wilson's [Frequent, neophyte]
  249. Lonicera periclymenum, L., Honeysuckle [Very common, native]
  250. Lotus corniculatus, L., Bird's-foot Trefoil, Common, including the var. sativus [Common, native]
  251. Lotus pedunculatus, Cav., Bird's-foot Trefoil, Large [Common, native]
  252. Luzula campestris, (L.) DC., Wood-rush, Field [Common, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  253. Malus pumila, Mill., Apple, Domestic [Frequent, neophyte]
  254. Malva arborea, (L.) Webb & Berthel., Mallow, Tree. On wasteground [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  255. Malva moschata, L., Mallow, Musk [Frequent, native]
  256. Malva sylvestris, L., Mallow, Common [Frequent, native]
  257. Matricaria discoidea, Dc., Pineappleweed [Very common, neophyte]
  258. Medicago arabica, (L.) Huds., Medic, Spotted [Frequent, native]
  259. Medicago lupulina, L., Medic, Black [Common, native]
  260. Melampyrum pratense subsp. pratense, L., Cow-wheat, Common [Frequent, status uncertain]
  261. Melilotus altissimus, Thuill., Melilot, Tall. [Occasional, archeophyte]
  262. Melilotus indicus, (L.) All., Melilot, Small, SS 457 266. [Rare, neophyte] [Locally, or otherwise, notable]
  263. Melilotus officinalis, (L.) Pall., Melilot, Ribbed.[Occasional, neophyte]
  264. Melissa officinalis, L., Balm, Lemon [Frequent, neophyte]
  265. Mentha aquatica, L., Mint, Water [Common, native]
  266. Mentha spicata, L., Mint, Spear [Occasional, archeophyte]
  267. Mentha x verticillata (aquatica x arvensis), L., Mint, hybrid (Corn x Water) [Frequent, native]
  268. Mercurialis perennis, L., Dog's-mercury [Very common, native]
  269. Misopates calycinum, Rothm., Weasle's-snout, Pale, SS 457 260 [Very rare, neophyte]
  270. Moehringia trinervia, (L.) Clairv., Sandwort, Three-nerved [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  271. Moenchia erecta, (L.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., Chickweed, Upright, SS 459 260. Possibly extinct by 2018 as main site was destroyed by bike track development [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  272. Myosotis arvensis, (L.) Hill, Forget-me-not, Field [Common, neophyte]
  273. Myosotis discolor, Pers., Forget-me-not, Changing [Frequent, native]
  274. Myosotis ramosissima, Rochel, Forget-me-not, Early [Occasional, native]
  275. Myosotis sylvatica, Ehrh. ex Hoffm., Forget-me-not, Wood. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation [Frequent, native]
  276. Nasturtium officinale, W.T.Aiton, Watercress [Common, native]
  277. Nigella damascena, L., Love-in-the-mist, SS 457 266. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation. [Occasional, neophyte] [Of local interest]
  278. Odontites vernus subsp. vernus, (Bellardi) Dumort., Bartsia, Red (early subspecies), SS 456 257. [Rare, native]
  279. Oenanthe crocata, L., Water-dropwort, Hemlock [Very common, native]
  280. Oenothera x fallax, , Evening Primrose, Intermediate, SS 456 258. [Very rare, neophyte]
  281. Orchis mascula, (L.) L., Orchid, Early-purple [Frequent, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  282. Ornithogalum umbellatum, L., Star-of-Bethlehem. [Occasional, neophyte]
  283. Oxalis corniculata, L., Yellow-sorrel, Procumbent [Occasional, neophyte]
  284. Oxalis stricta, L., Yellow-sorrel, Upright, SS 457 260.  [Rare, neophyte]
  285. Papaver somniferum, L., Poppy, Opium [Frequent, archeophyte]
  286. Parapholis strigosa 'exarcuata', , Hard Grass, 'exarcuata' (undescribed form), SS 455 258. [Rare, possibly native]
  287. Parietaria judaica, L., Pellitory-of-the-wall [Frequent, native]
  288. Parthenocissus quinquefolia, (L.) Planch., Virginia-creeper, SS 456 262 [Rare, neophyte]
  289. Persicaria hydropiper, (L.) Delarbre, Water-pepper [Common, native]
  290. Persicaria lapathifolia, (L.) Delarbre, Persicaria, Pale, SS 457 260 [Frequent, native]
  291. Persicaria maculosa, Gray, Redshank [Common, native]
  292. Petasites fragrans, (Vill.) C. Pres, Heliotrope, Winter [Frequent, neophyte]
  293. Phalaris arundinacea, L., Canary-grass, Reed [Common, native]
  294. Phalaris canariensis, L., Canary-grass, SS 461 257. Pavement weed [Rare, neophyte]
  295. Phleum bertolonii, DC., Cat's-tail, Smaller [Occasional, native]
  296. Phleum pratense, L., Cat's-tail [Common, native]
  297. Phragmites australis, (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., Reed, Common [Frequent, native]
  298. Picea sitchensis, (Bong.) Carrière, Spruce, Sitka [Frequent, neophyte]
  299. Pinus sylvestris, L., Pine, Scot's [Common, native]
  300. Plantago coronopus, L., Plantain, Buck's-horn [Frequent, native]
  301. Plantago lanceolata, L., Plantain, Ribwort [Very common, native]
  302. Plantago major subsp. major, L., Plantain, Broad-leaved [Very common, native]
  303. Plantago maritima, L., Plantain, Sea [Frequent, native]
  304. Poa annua, L., Meadow-grass, Annual [Very common, native]
  305. Poa humilis, Ehrh. ex Hoffm., Meadow-grass, Spreading [Occasional, native]
  306. Poa nemoralis, L., Meadow-grass, Wood [Frequent, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  307. Poa pratensis, L., Meadow-grass, Smooth [Common, native]
  308. Poa trivialis, L., Meadow-grass, Rough [Common, native]
  309. Polygonum arenastrum, Boreau, Knotgrass, Equal-leaved [Frequent, archeophyte]
  310. Polygonum aviculare, L., Knotgrass [Common, native]
  311. Polygonum rurivagum, Jord. ex Boreau, Knotgrass, Cornfield, SS 457 260 [Occasional, archeophyte]
  312. Polypodium interjectum, Shivas, Polypody, Intermediate. Confirmed under microscope [Common, native]
  313. Polypodium vulgare, L., Polypody, Common [Very common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  314. Polypogon viridis, (Gouan) Breistr., Bent, Water [Occasional, neophyte]
  315. Polystichum setiferum, (Forssk.) T. Moore ex Woyn., Shield-fern, Soft [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  316. Populus x canescens (alba x tremula), (Aiton) Sm., Poplar, Grey [Frequent, neophyte]
  317. Potentilla anglica, Laichard, Tormentil, Trailing [Frequent, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  318. Potentilla anserina, L., Silverweed [Common, native]
  319. Potentilla reptans, L., Cinquefoil, Creeping [Common, native]
  320. Potentilla sterilis, (L.) Garcke, Strawberry, Barren [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  321. Potentilla x mixta (sensu lato), Nolte ex Rchb., Cinquefoil, Hybrid. [Occasional, native]
  322. Primula vulgaris, Huds., Primrose [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  323. Prunella vulgaris, L., Self-heal [Common, native]
  324. Prunus avium, (L.) L., Cherry, Wild [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  325. Prunus cerasifera, Ehrh., Plum, Cherry [Occasional, neophyte]
  326. Prunus padus, L., Cherry, Bird, SS 463 266. Relic of planting or bird-sown. [Considered rare when truly established in a wild context, native]
  327. Prunus spinosa, L., Blackthorn [Very common, native]
  328. Pseudofumaria lutea, (L.) Borkh., Corydalis, Yellow. Established on the streetward side of a few older garden walls [Frequent, neophyte]
  329. Pteridium aquilinum, (L.) Kuhn, Bracken [Very common, native]
  330. Puccinellia distans subsp. distans, (Jacq.) Parl., Saltmarsh-grass, Reflexed, SS 455 256 [Rare, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  331. Puccinellia maritima, (Huds.) Parl., Saltmarsh-grass, Common [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  332. Pulicaria dysenterica, (L.) Bernh., Fleabane, Common [Common, native]
  333. Quercus cerris, L., Oak, Turkey [Frequent, neophyte]
  334. Quercus ilex, L., Oak, Evergreen [Frequent, neophyte]
  335. Quercus petraea, (Matt.) Liebl., Oak, Sessile [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  336. Quercus robur, L., Oak, Pedunculate [Very common, native]
  337. Ranunculus acris, L., Buttercup, Meadow [Common, native]
  338. Ranunculus bulbosus, L., Buttercup, Bulbous [Common, native]
  339. Ranunculus parviflorus, L., Buttercup, Small-flowered [Frequent, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  340. Ranunculus repens, L., Buttercup, Creeping [Very common, native]
  341. Ranunculus sceleratus, L., Buttercup, Celery-leaved [Occasional, native]
  342. Reseda luteola, L., Weld [Frequent, archeophyte]
  343. Rhinanthus minor, L., Yellow-rattle [Frequent, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator]
  344. Rosa arvensis, Huds., Rose, Field [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  345. Rosa canina, L., Rose, Dog- [Very common, native]
  346. Rosa micrantha, Borrer ex Sm., Sweet Briar, Small-flowered [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  347. Rosa rugosa, Thunb., Rose, Japanese. Single plant growing in the sea wall [Occasional, neophyte]
  348. Rosa spinosissima, L., Rose, Burnet-. On the road-verge between SS 468 268 and SS 469 268. [Rare, native]
  349. Rosa virginiana, Herrm., Rose, Virginian, SS 455 257. Well over 100m from the nearest garden, though likely to be a cultivated form as it was suckering freely. Before this patch was found, this species was Last reported from Devon in 1878. [Not in New Flora (2016), neophyte]
  350. Rosmarinus officinalis, L., Rosemary, SS 458 266. Seedling established in a stone wall. [Very rare, neophyte]
  351. Rubia peregrina, L., Madder, Wild [Locally frequent, native]
  352. Rubus fruticosus agg., -, Bramble (several microspecies are represented) [Very common, native]
  353. Rumex acetosa, L., Sorrel [Common, native]
  354. Rumex conglomeratus, Murray, Dock, Clustered [Frequent, native]
  355. Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, L., Dock, Curled [Common, native]
  356. Rumex obtusifolius, L., Dock, Broad-leaved [Very common, native]
  357. Rumex sanguineus, L., Dock, Wood [Very common, native]
  358. Sagina filicaulis, Jord, Pearlword, Slender [Distribution uncertain, native]
  359. Sagina procumbens, L., Pearl-wort, Procumbent [Common, native]
  360. Salicornia agg., , Glasswort, undetermined, SS 455 258 [Rare, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  361. Salix alba, L., Willow, White [Occasional, archeophyte]
  362. Salix caprea, , Willow, Goat [Common, native]
  363. Salix cinerea, L., Willow, Grey [Very common, native]
  364. Salix purpurea, L., Willow, Purple, SS 462 269. Several plants are part of a roadside shelter-belt on a local nature reserve. [Considered rare when truly established in a wild context, native]
  365. Sambucus nigra, L., Elderberry [Very common, native]
  366. Saxifraga tridactylites, L., Saxifrage, Rue-leaved. [Occasional, native]
  367. Schedonorus arundinaceus, (Schreb.) Dumort., Fescue, Tall. Cilia confirmed [Frequent, native]
  368. Schedonorus giganteus, (L.) Holub., Fescue, Giant [Frequent, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  369. Scorzoneroides autumnalis, (L.) Moench, Hawkbit, Autumn [Common, native]
  370. Scrophularia auriculata, L., Figwort, Water [Common, native]
  371. Scrophularia nodosa, L., Figwort, Common [Common, native]
  372. Sedum acre, L., Stonecrop, Biting [Frequent, native]
  373. Sedum album, L., Stonecrop, White [Frequent, archeophyte]
  374. Sedum repustre, L., Stonecrop, Reflexed [Frequent, neophyte]
  375. Sedum stoloniferum, S. G. Gmel, Stonecrop, Lesser Caucasian, SS 456 256. [Very rare, neophyte]
  376. Senecio erucifolius, L., Ragwort, Hoary [Frequent, native]
  377. Senecio jacobaea, L., Ragwort [Very common, native]
  378. Senecio vulgaris, L., Groundsel [Very common, native]
  379. Sherardia arvensis, L., Madder, Field [Frequent, native]
  380. Silene coronaria, (L.) Clairv., Campion, Rose, SS 462 259 [Rare, neophyte]
  381. Silene dioica, (L.) Clairv., Campion, Red [Very common, native]
  382. Sinapis arvensis, L., Charlock [Frequent, archeophyte]
  383. Sison amomum, L, Parsley, Stone [Frequent, native]
  384. Sisymbrium officinale, (L.) Scop., Mustard, Hedge [Common, archeophyte]
  385. Sisymbrium orientale, L., Rocket, Eastern [Rare, neophyte]
  386. Smyrnium olusatrum, L., Alexanders [Common, archeophyte]
  387. Solanum dulcamara, L., Nightshade, Woody [Common, native]
  388. Solanum nigrum, L., Nightshade, Black [Frequent, native]
  389. Soleirolia soleirolii, (Req.) Dandy, Mind-your-own-business [Frequent, neophyte]
  390. Solidago virgaurea, L., Goldenrod [Frequent, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  391. Sonchus arvensis, L., Sow-thistle, Perennial [Common, native]
  392. Sonchus asper, (L.) Hill, Sow-thistle, Prickly [Common, native]
  393. Sonchus oleraceus, L., Sow-thistle, Soft [Common, native]
  394. Spartina anglica, C.E. Hubb., Chord-grass, Common [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  395. Spergularia marina, (L.) Griseb.,, Spurrey, Lesser Sea [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  396. Spergularia media, (L.) C. Presl, Spurrey, Greater Sea [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  397. Stachys arvensis, (L.) L., Woundwort, Field [Frequent, archeophyte] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  398. Stachys byzantina, K. Koch, Lamb's-ears, SS 457 267. Self-sown in a crevice at the edge of a block paved promenade [Very rare, neophyte]
  399. Stachys officinalis, (L.) Trevis., Betony [Common, native] [Unimproved Grassland Indicator, Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  400. Stachys sylvatica, L., Woundwort, Hedge [Common, native]
  401. Stachys x ambigua (sylvatica x palustris), Sm., Woundwort, Hybrid [Occasional, native]
  402. Stellaria alsine, Grimm, Stitchwort, Bog [Common, native]
  403. Stellaria graminea, L., Stitchwort, Lesser [Common, native]
  404. Stellaria holostea, L., Stitchwort, Greater [Very common, native]
  405. Stellaria media, L., Chickweed [Common, native]
  406. Stellaria neglecta, L., Chickweed, Greater.[Frequent, native]
  407. Suaeda maritima, (L.) Dumort., Sea-blight, Annual [Occasional, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  408. Syringa vulgaris, L., Lilac [Frequent, neophyte]
  409. Tamus communis, L., Bryony, Black [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  410. Tanacetum vulgare, L., Tansy [Frequent, native]
  411. Taraxacum agg., -, Dandelion [Very common, native]
  412. Teucrium scorodonia, L., Wood-sage [Common, native]
  413. Thlaspi arvense, L., Penny-cress, Field [Frequent, archeophyte]
  414. Torilis japonica, (Houtt.) DC., Parsley, Upright Hedge [Frequent, native]
  415. Tragopogon pratensis, (Mill.) Wahlenb., Goat's-beard [Frequent, native]
  416. Trifolium campestre, Schreb., Trefoil, Hop [Frequent, native]
  417. Trifolium dubium, Sibth., Trefoil, Lesser [Very common, native]
  418. Trifolium glomeratum, L., Clover, Clustered, SS 459 260 [Rare, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  419. Trifolium pratense, L., Clover, Red [Very common, native]
  420. Trifolium repens, L., Clover, White [Very common, native]
  421. Trifolium subterraneum, L., Clover, Subterranean [Occasional, native]
  422. Triglochin maritimum, L., Arrowgrass, Sea [Occasional, native]
  423. Tripleurospermum inodorum, (L.) Sch. Bip., Mayweed, Scentless [Common, archeophyte]
  424. Tripleurospermum maritimum, (L.) W.D.J. Koch, Mayweed, Sea. [Frequent, native]
  425. Tropaeolum majus, L., Nasturtium, SS 457 260. Dumped or likely to have been introduced by dumping [Considered rare when truly established in a wild context, garden variety]
  426. Tussilago farfara, L., Colt's-foot [Common, native]
  427. Typha latifolia, L., Reedmace [Frequent, native]
  428. Ulex europaeus, L., Gorse [Very common, native]
  429. Ulmus minor subsp. angustifolia, (Weston) Stace, Elm, Cornish [Frequent, native] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
  430. Ulmus procera, Salisb., Elm, English [Common, native]
  431. Ulmus x hollandica (=glabra x minor x plotii), Mill., Elm, Dutch. Rounded leaves on straight twigs. Short petiole, rust coloured hairs on buds, rough on both sides of the leaf. [Rare, native]
  432. Umbilicus rupestris, (Salisb.) Dandy, Penny-wort, Wall [Common, native]
  433. Urtica dioica subsp. dioica, L., Nettle, Common [Very common, native]
  434. Valeriana officinalis, L., Valarian, Common [Common, native]
  435. Valerianella carinata, Loisel., Cornsalad, Keel-fruited [Frequent, archeophyte]
  436. Verbascum thapsus, L., Mullein, Great [Frequent, native]
  437. Verbena bonariensis, L., Vervain, Argentinian. Considered to be an escape from adjacent cultivation. [Considered rare when truly established in a wild context, neophyte]
  438. Verbena officinalis, L., Vervain. On the block paving at Ethylwynne Brown Close [Occasional, archeophyte]
  439. Veronica arvensis, L., Speedwell, Wall [Common, native]
  440. Veronica chamaedrys, L., Speedwell, Germander [Very common, native]
  441. Veronica filiformis, Sm., Speedwell, Slender [Common, neophyte]
  442. Veronica hederifolia, L., Speedwell, Ivy-leaved [Common, archeophyte]
  443. Veronica montana, L., Speedwell, Wood [Common, native]
  444. Veronica persica, Poir., Speedwell, Common Field- [Common, neophyte]
  445. Veronica polita, Fr., Speedwell, Grey Field- [Occasional, neophyte]
  446. Veronica serpyllifolia, L., Speedwell, Thyme-leaved [Common, native]
  447. Viburnum opulus, L., Guelder Rose [Common, native] [Ancient Woodland Indicator]
  448. Vicia cracca, L., Vetch, Tufted [Common, native]
  449. Vicia hirsuta, (L.) Gray, Tare, Hairy [Common, native]
  450. Vicia sativa, L., Vetch, Common, including subspecies nigra and the Archeophyte subspecies segetalis [Common, native]
  451. Vicia sepium, L., Vetch, Bush [Common, native]
  452. Vicia tetrasperma, (L.) Schreb., Tare, Smooth [Frequent, native]
  453. Vinca major, L., Periwinkle, Greater, including the very rare var. oxyloba (at SS 460 267) [Frequent, neophyte]
  454. Viola arvensis, Murray, Pansy, Field, SS 457 260 [Frequent, archeophyte]
  455. Viola riviniana, Rchb., Violet, Common Dog- [Very common, native]
  456. Vulpia bromoides, (L.) Gray, Fescue, Squirreltail [Frequent, native]
  457. Vulpia myuros, (L.) C.C. Gmel., Fescue, Rat's-tail [Occasional, archeophyte] [On Devon County Council list of Devon Notable species]
Generated on 09/01/2020:00:47:38. From records of R. I. Kirby.