Historical directory of
East-the-Water
traders and civic bodies.

By R I Kirby

Last updated 13 March 2017

Contents

Table of Contents

Contents 1

Introduction 8

List of traders and establishments 8

Tradesmen and companies (excluding inns and pubs) 8

Anglo-American Oil Co., East-the-Water, automotive fuel supplier, ?-1924 till 1933-? 8

Austin, Jane (Mrs), of Torrington Lane, grocer, ?-1881 till c1898 9

Austin, Joseph, of Torrington Lane, grocer, ?-1878-? 9

Avery, George, of Barnstaple Street, marine stores dealer, ?-1872 till 1878-? 9

Backway, John, of Torrington Lane, potter, ?-1878-1893-? 9

Baker, Isaac, unknown location, stone mason, ?-1822 till 1830-? 10

Baker, I & Son, of Brunswick Wharf, mason and builders merchant, ?-1893 till 1953-? 10

Baker, Percy, of East-the-Water, grocer, ?-1942-? 11

Baker, Samuel, of Barnstaple Street, basket maker, ?-1919-? 11

Barnstaple Turnpike Trust, ?-1828-1880? 11

Barrow, of Torrington Street, brewers, 1861 till 1908-? 12

Barrow, Robert, of Torrington Street, brewer, 1861 till 1891-? 12

Barrow, Robert & Son, of Torrington Street, brewer, 1861 till 1908-? 13

Bartlett, of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1890 till 1950-? 13

Bartlett & Son, of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1890 till 1908-? 13

Bartlett, Son & Boord, of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1902 till 1908-? 14

Bartlett and Boord, of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1907 till 1912-? 14

Bartlett, Bayliss and Co., of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1918 till 1926-? 14

Bartlett's, Messers E. W. S., of East-the-Water, timber merchant, ?-1942 till 1947 14

Bartlett's, E. W. S., (Devon) Ltd., of East-the-Water, timber merchant, 1947 till 1950-? 15

Blake, E. L., of 43 Barnstaple Street, Dressmaker, ?-1900-? 15

Blake, William, East-the-Water, Coal Dealer, ?-1948-? 15

Blake, William, of Torrington Street, Butcher, ?-1844 till 1853-? 15

Bideford & Bristol Steam Ship Co., of Brunswick Wharf, steamship operators, 1893 till 1920-? 15

Bideford and Okehampton Railway Company, of Railway Wharf 16

Bideford Anthracite Mining Company, of Barnstaple Street, coal, culm and mineral paint miners, 1846 until 1865 16

Bideford Black Ltd., of Chapel Park, mineral black miners, 1928-1935 26

Bideford Black Pigments Ltd., of Chapel Park, mineral black miners, c1935 till 1969 26

Bideford Gas and Coke Co. (limited), of Nuttaberry, 1835-1849 26

Bideford Motor Works, of Torrington Street, garage, ?-1911 till 1932 27

Bird Charles, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper, ?-1893-1902-? 27

Boaden, John, of Barnstaple Street, baker, ?-1902-? 27

Boord, Oscar Philip (see Bartlet & Son.) 27

Bow Sarah Ann (Mrs), of 1 Chudleigh Villas, landlady, ?-1893-? 27

Braund John, of Barnstaple Street, Joiner, ?-1919-? 27

British Rail, 1948-present 27

British Rola, of Nuttaberry, speaker systems, c1947-1949 27

Brook, William, of Cross Park, merchant, lime burner, then shipbuilder, ?-1822 till 1844-? 28

Burnard, Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, ship-owner and lime burner, ?-1806 till 1839-? 28

Burnard, William, location unknown, lime burner, ?-1830-? 28

Burrow, Elizabeth (Mrs.), location uncertain, dressmaker, ?-1991 till 1901-? 28

Carder, William, location uncertain, potter, ?-1808 till 1834? 28

Carter, Anne, location uncertain, straw hat maker, ?-1839 till 1841-? 29

Carter, James, Barnstaple Street?, shopkeeper, ?-1830 till 1844-? 29

Chanter, of Clarence Wharf, manure merchant, 1843 till c. 1887 29

R & H.E. Chaplin's Ltd., Barnstaple Street, Hauliers, ?-1920 till 1942 -? 29

Chappel, Thomas, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-? 30

Ching, Briant/Bryant, of Torrington Lane, earthenware manufacturer and coal merchant, ?-1841 till 1867 30

Ching, Eliza, of Torrington Lane, potter, ?-1851-? 30

Cole, John Tapley, potter, of Cross Park, ?-1849-1852 31

Collier, John, of Torrington Street, biscuit baker, ?-1861-? 31

Colwill, Philip, of Barnstaple Street, timber merchant, lime burner, and coal dealer,?-1857-1893 31

Colwill, Philip, of Torrington Street, shopkeeper, ?-1919-? 32

Colwill's Stores (see Colwill, Philip, of Barnstaple Street) 32

Colwill William, torrington lane?, beerhouse, ?-1850-? (see Sailor's Arms) 32

Devon Concrete Works 32

Cooke, George, location unknown, merchant, ?-1822 till 1830-? 33

Courtice, location unknown, lime burner, ?-1822-? 33

Cortis, location uncertain, potter? 33

Crocker, John, location uncertain, boat builder, ?-1839-? 33

Crump, William, 40 Torrington Street?, horse breaker, ?-1893 till 1894-? 33

Daniel, John, of London Inn, Barnstaple Street, coal dealer, ?-1839 till 1853-? 33

Dannell, Edwin, location unknown, hatter, ?-1850-? 33

Dark, William, of Barnstaple Street, boot and shoe maker, ?-1839 till 1851-? 34

Davie, John (1640-1710), of Colonial House, tobacco merchant, late 17th C 34

Delbridge, James, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper and postmaster, ?-1892-1902-? 34

Delbridge, Nellie (Miss), of 21 Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper and post-mistress, ?-1919-? 34

Devon Trading Co. Ltd., of Barnstaple street, builders merchants, 1883?-1953-? 34

Doherty, George, of Torrington Street, Coal Merchant, ?-1878-? 35

Domestic Appliances Home Services, of Chudleigh Works, shopkeepers, ?-1957-? 35

Dornat & Co., of Torrington Street, carbonated drinks manufacturer, ?-1902 till 1919-? 35

Dymond, Robert, Industrial Place/Railway Terrace, bootmaker, ?-1890 till 1902-? 35

Eastman, William, location unknown, coal merchant, ?-1844-? 36

Ebbsworthy, Fredrick, of Torrington Lane, shopkeeper, ?-1902-? 36

Elliot, Stephen, of Barnstaple Street, carpenter, ?-1878-? 36

Ellis, T, of 25 Torrington Lane, Butcher and Purveyor, 1909-? 36

Embery, Arthur John, of Barnstaple Street, fire office agent, ?-1902-? 36

Embery, John Holloway, of Barnstaple Street, joiner, ?-1861 till 1902-? 36

Embery, William, of Barnstaple Street, carpenter, ?-1839 till 1868-? 37

Emery and Cox, Torrington Street, automobile and general engineers, ?-1908-? 37

Essery, Richard, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1844-? 37

Esso, Cross Park, petrol station ?-? 37

Evans John, of Barnstaple Street, shipbuilder, ?-1822-? 38

Evans, Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, shipyard owner and timber trader, c1822 till 1838 38

Evans Thomas, of Torrington Lane, marine store dealer, ?-1878 till 1902-? 38

Facey, John, of Barnstaple Street, lime-burner, then miller and corn factor, ?1822 till c1848 38

Fison & Co., of Barnstaple Street, manure manufacturers, ?-1878-? 38

Folley, Richard, of East-the-Water, baker, ?-1902-? 39

Fry, of Barnstaple Street, limeburner, ? till 1857 39

Fry, Thomas & Co., of Agricultural Wharf, Barnstaple Street, corn, manure & seed merchant, ?-1893 till 1914 39

Fulford J. U. & Sons, of Clarence Wharf (later of Queens Wharf), ?-1891 till 1919-? 40

Fulford, Trump's & Co. 1936-1970 40

Gabriel, James Edward & Son, of Clarence Wharf, monumental mason, 1890 till 1919-? 42

Galliver, Samuel, of Barnstaple Street, blacksmith, ?-1850 till 1878-? 42

Gas Works, c1834 till 1853-? 43

Geaton, John, location unknown, boot & shoemaker & shopkeeper, ?-1844 till 1852? 43

Gibbens ,William, of Torrington Lane, marine store dealer, ?-1878-? 43

Giddie's Tanton's Hotel, of New Street, excursion operator ?-1893-? 43

Glover, William Henry, of Torrington Street, butcher, ?-1878-1902-? 43

W. and H. M. Goulding & Son., of Dublin & Cork, manure merchants, ?-1884-? 43

Grant, William Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, blacksmith, ?-1893 till 1919-? 44

Griffey, Thomas, location unknown, block maker, ?-1850-? 44

Hancock, Hugh, of East-the-Water, Baker, ?-1830 till 1839-? 44

Hamling, Joseph Green, of Barnstaple Street, wool and seed merchant, ?-1902-1919-? 44

Hammett, Charles, of Barnstaple Street, music teacher, ?-1878-? 44

Hammett, Elizabeth (Mrs), of 1 Barnstaple Street, landlady, ?-1878-? 44

Hammett, William, of Torrington Street, sailmaker, c1853 till 1867 44

Hazel, Henry, location unknown, woolstapler or fellmonger, ?-1830-? 45

Heal, Mary (Mrs), of Barnstaple Street, then Railway Terrace, greengrocer, ?-1902 till 1919-? 45

Hearn, Richard, Canada Cottages, house decorator & insurance agent, ?-1891 till 1893-? 45

Heard Brothers, of Colonial Buildings, merchants, 1858 till 1862-? 45

Heard, George, of Colonial House and 1 Spring Gardens, merchant, ?- 1857 till 1875-? 46

Heard, Hugh Percy, of the Royal Hotel, artist, ?-1902-? 49

Heard, H. Stanley, hotel proprietor and timber importer (see Royal Hotel) 50

Heard, Richard, Colonial Buildings, merchant, ?-1840 till 1858 50

Herniman & Mills, location unknown, ?-1887 53

Herniman, Robert, of Bideford Carriage Works, Torridge Terrace, 1888 till 1899 (1902?) 53

Hinks, John, of Barnstaple Street, then Torrington Street, pleasure boats, ?-1878 till 1909? 53

Hodge, John, of Torrington Lane, grocer, ?-1850-? 54

Holman, John, location uncertain, beer retailer, ?-1839-? 54

Hookway, William, location unknown, wheelwright, ?-1830-? 54

How, A., of Barnstaple, ?-1883-? 54

Hopgood, John, of East-the-Water, anchor smith, ?-1830-1844 54

Hutchings, Edward, journeyman, Cooper, ?-1844-? 54

Hutchings, Peter, location uncertain, shopkeeper, ?-1839-? 55

Huxtable ,Alice, of Barnstaple Street, straw hat maker, ?-1844-? 55

Huxtable ,Misses, of Barnstaple Street, straw hat makers, ?-1850-? 55

Huxtable, Mary (Mrs), of 7 Springfield Terrace, landlady, ?-1902-1919-? 55

Huxtable, John, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper & tallow chandler, ?-1850 till 1878-? 55

Huxtable & Son, of Barnstaple Street?, woolstaplers, ?-1853-? 55

Irish, Thomas Benjamin, location unknown, manure agent, ?-1878-? 55

Jewell, John, Torrington Street, schoolmaster, ?-1824 till 1830-? 55

Johnson, John, of Barnstaple Street, shipbuilder, mid 19th C. 56

Johnson, Robert & Son, of Barnstaple Street, blockmaker and shipbuilder, early 19th C. 56

Jones, E., location unknown, straw hat makers, ?-1850-? 56

Jones, Elizabeth, location uncertain, stay maker, ?-1839-? 57

Jones, Hannah, location unknown, earthenware and glass merchants, ?-1822 till 1830-? 57

Keates, William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1830-? 57

Keates, William Henry (see Ship on Launch), ?-1902-? 57

Kevan, Miss, of 4 Barnstaple Street, Dress and Mantle Maker, ?-1895-? 57

Kivell, R, of Nutterberry?, Coal, Sand & Gravel trader, ?-1889 till 1891-? 57

Kivell, Richard, of Torrington Lane, baker, 1838?-1889 till 1919-? 57

Kynoch's Ltd, of Kynoch's shore, c1918 till 1926-? 58

Lake, Richard, of Barnstaple Street, coal merchant, lime burner & maltster, ?-1843 till 1853-? 58

Lake, Simon, location unknown, tailor, ?-1822 till 1830-? 59

Lake, Simon Hay, location unknown, marine store dealer, ?-1867-? 59

Lang, George, location unknown, schoolmaster, ?-1844-? 59

Lee, Charles H., of 6 Clifton Street, painter and decorator, ?-1934? 59

Lee, Thomas, location unknown, beer retailer, ?-1853-? 59

Lee, William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-? 60

Lee, W. T., 18 Barnstaple Street, Grocer, ?-1949-? 60

Lethbridge, John, location unknown, gardener or seedsman, ?-1830-? 60

Ley, Harry, of 17 Torrington Street, watch repairer, ?-1919-? 60

Ley, Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, Nuttaberry, and the Town Quay, merchant, shipping agent & lime burner, ?-1839 till 1853-? 60

Lile, John, of Barnstaple Street, tin-plate worker, painter, plumber, ?-1838 till 1878-? 61

Lile, Thomas, Torrington Street?, beer retailer, ?-1844 til 1850-? 61

Lion Stores, of Barnstaple Street, ?-1976 till 1990? 61

Lisle, John, location uncertain, plumber, ?-1839-? 62

Lisle, Thomas, location uncertain, beer retailer, ?-1839-? 62

London & South Western Railway Co. 62

Madge, Simon, location unknown, earthenware manufacturer, ?-1822-? 62

Madge, J., location uncertain, baker, ?-1887 till 1888-? 62

Manning, Zilla (Mrs.), of Railway Terrace, landlady, ?-1902-? 62

May, Mary (Mrs), of 25 Torrington Lane, shopkeeper, ?-1919-? 62

May, William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-? 63

Max Factor, location unknown, cosmetics manufacturer, 20th C. 63

Mills, of Clarence Wharf, occupation unknown, ?-1867-? 63

Mills, John, of Queen's Wharf, blacksmith, 1888-? 63

Metherall, John, location unknown, block maker, ?-1878-? 63

Mitchell, Hartnell, location unknown, hair dresser, ?-1902-? 63

Mitchell, Thomas, of Torrington Lane, Coal Merchant ?-1893-1902-? 63

Mock, Faith (Mrs), of Torrington Lane, shopkeeper, ?-1878-? 63

Newcombe's Wharf, of Barnstaple Street, ?-1842 till 1899-? 63

North Devon Bakery, location uncertain, bakers, ?-1895 till 1996-? 64

North Devon Farmers Ltd. of Barnstaple Street, Agricultural Merchants & Engineers., ?-1953-? 65

Odam's Manure & Chemical Company Limited, of Barnstaple Street, fertilizer producers, ?-1905 till 1908-? 65

Osborne James, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper, ?-1902-? 66

Packard, Messrs., Clarence Wharf ?-1890-? 66

Peard, John, Clarence Wharf?, carpenter or joiner, ?-1830 till 1848-? 66

Pearse, Gideon, location uncertain, fishmonger, ?-1839-? 66

Petherick, Edward, location unknown, earthenware manufacturer, ?-1822 till 1844-? 66

Phear, Wiiliam, of Torridge Place, carrier, ?-1893 till 1902-? 66

Phillips & Co., of Torrington Lane, earthenware maker, ?-1877 till 1878-? 67

Phillips, James, of Torrington Street, shopkeeper, ?-1902 till 1919-? 67

Phillips, William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1839 till 1844-? 68

Pickard, Elizabet, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1844-? 68

Pollard, Anna Maria, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-? 68

Pollard, George, of Barnstaple Street, shipping agent, ?-1870 till 1896 68

Pollard, George & Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, black, coal and manure manufacturer, and steam packet agents, ?-1884 till 1896 69

Pollard, Thomas (& Son), of Barnstaple Street, later Chapel Park, ?-1878-1919-? 70

Pollard, Thomas & Son, of Barnstaple Street, later Chapel Park, ?-1878-1919-? 76

Pollard, William, location unknown, grocer, merchant, shopkeeper, ?-1850-? 76

Poole, Thomas, location unknown, gardener or seedsman, ?-1830-? 76

Pritchard, S. E. of Steamer Wharf, builder's merchant, ?-1889 till 1890-? 76

Pure Chemical Carbon Company, of Nuttaberry, 1911 till 1913? 77

Pyke, William, Torrington Street, master mariner, ?-1826 till 1827 77

RGB Bideford, Nuttaberry, builder's merchants, 1936 till present 77

Robeda, Nuttaberry, joiners, 1972-present 77

Rolomatic, Messrs, of Torrington Lane, mechanical engineers, ?-1945-1949 77

Redcliffe & Backway, of Industrial Place (Torrington Lane), ?-1893 till 1896-? 77

Redcliffe & Son, of Torrington Lane, potters, ?-1902-? 78

Redcliffe, James, of Industrial Place (Torrington Lane), potter, ?-1891-? 78

Redcliffe, William, location unknown, marine store dealer, ?-1893-? 78

Renatus Ltd., of Alverdiscott Ind. Estate.,Organ manufacturers, ?-2016-? 78

Restarick's Shipyard, of Barnstaple Street (Brunswick Wharf), shipbuilders, ?- 1878 till 1866 78

Rippin, John, location uncertain, smith, ?-1839-? 78

Rolamatic, of Torrington Lane, precision engineering, c1945 till 1956-? 78

Rook, Alexander, of East-the-Water, smith, ?-1830-? 78

Rook, Ann, location unknown, shopkeeper or dealer in sundries, ?-1839 till 1844-? 78

Rook, George, location uncertain, shoemaker, ?-1839-? 78

Rook, James, of Torrington Lane then Barnstaple Street, marine stores dealer, ?-1893 till 1902-? 78

Rook, John, of East-the-Water, smith, ?-1830-? 79

Routley, Frank Ernest, of Barnstaple Street, corn, seed and manure merchant, ?-1913 till 1943? 79

Sanders, Fanny Elizabeth (Mrs), of Chudleigh Villa, Nursing Home Proprietor, ?-1919-? 79

Sargent & Co. Ltd., of Barnstaple Street, ? till 1964 79

Sincombe, Patience, location unknown, potter, ?-1733-? 80

Shapland, Misses, of Barnstaple Street, Dyer's Agents, ?-1837-? 80

Short, John, of Industrial Place (Torrington Lane), Monumental Mason, ?-1919-? 80

Shutt, F, of Barnstaple Street, Joiner, Cabinet Maker, Upholsterer and Undertaker, ?-1904-? 80

Smale, R. G., at 18 Barnstaple Street, Fruiterer and General Stores, ?-1947-? 80

Smith, W. H. & Son, at the Railway Station, Stationers, ?-1902 till 1919-? 80

Snow, Deakin, & Co. Ltd., of Torrington Lane, precision engineers, 1949-? 81

Squire .Francis, of Barnstaple Street, monumental mason, ?-1870-c1890 81

Squire & Son (see Squire, Francis) 81

Starkey, Knight & Ford Limited, of Barnstaple Street, brewers, ?-1902 till 1919-? 81

Stanbury, Thomas, location unknown, coal merchant, ?-1844 till 1853-? 82

Steam Packet Co., Clarence Wharf, 82

Stevens, Reginald Jas., of Torrington Lane, fish frier, ?-1944-? 82

Stoneman, George, of 25 Brookside Street, ?-1919-? 82

Strange, George, of Barnstaple Street, merchant, 18th C. 82

John Strange, location uncertain, early 17th C 85

John Strange, location uncertain, merchant, early 18th C 85

Symons, Alfred Edward, of Torridge Mount, Insurance Agent, ?-1902-? 86

Symons, Sarah, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-? 86

Symons William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1839 till 1844-? 86

Swain, John, of Barnstaple Street, earthenware manufacturer, ?-1822 till 1830-? 86

Swain, John, of Barnstaple Street, bootmaker, ?-1878-? 86

Tapp, Thomas, bark merchant, Clarence Wharf, ?-? 86

Taylor, C., location unknown, builder and innkeeper, ?-1925-? 86

Taylor, Frank, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper, ?-1919-? 86

Taylor, William, of Cross Park, shipbuilder, ?-1803 till 1830-? 86

Thorne, Richard, location uncertain, shopkeeper, ?-1850-1853-? 87

Thorne, William, of Torrington Lane? 87

Trewin, of Clarence Wharf, manure merchant, 1865-? 87

Triggs, William, location uncertain, beer retailer, ?-1839-? 87

Tucker, Henry, Brunswick Wharf, shipbuilder and maltster, ?-1822-1844-? 87

Tucker, John, of Queen's Wharf, corn merchant, ?-1887 till 1893-? 87

Tucker, John & Son, of Potter's Lane, earthenware manufacturer, ?-1839 till 1844-? 87

Turner, James, location uncertain, blacksmith, ?-1839-? 87

Turner, William, location uncertain, store holder, ?-1869-? 87

Turner, William, of Torrington Street, boot maker, ?-1902 till 1919-? 88

Vanstone, J. T., near Chudleigh Villas, timber yard, ?-20th C.-? 88

Vicary, James, of Barnstaple Street, blacksmith & shipsmith, ?-1839 till 1853-? 88

Waters, Mary, location uncertain, milliner, ?-1850-? 88

Waters, Thomas, of Cross Park, shipbuilder, ?-1850-? 88

Waters, William, location uncertain, shipbuilder, mid 19th C. 88

Watts, Henry, location unknown, beerhouse keeper, ?-1850-? 88

Way, John & Son, Barnstaple Street, coal dealer, ?-1886 till 1960s-? 88

Western Counties Agricultural Co-operative Association Limited, of Barnstaple Street, 1893 till 1919-? 89

Willcock, John, of Colonial House, timber and wine merchant, 1784-1800 90

Willcock, John junr., of Colonial House, timber and wine merchant, 1800-1807 91

Willcock, Mrs., of Barnstaple Street, timber merchant, ?-1828-? 91

Willcock, Thos. John, location unknown, merchant, ?-1830-? 91

Willcocks and Sons, Messrs. John, timber merchants, ?-1813-? 91

Woolf, J. of Barnstaple Street, rabbit, hen, and moleskin dealer, ?-1907 till 1909-? 91

Wood, Pollard and Co., of Barnstaple Street?, culm mine proprietors, ?-1843 till 1844-? 91

Wyvern Classical Organs Ltd, location unknown, electronic organ manufacturers, ?-1986 till 1994-? 92

Wyvern Organ Builders Ltd. Old Schoolhouse, Torrington Street, electronic organ manufacturers?-1966-? 92

Schools 92

East-the-Water Infant (Board) School, Torrington Street, 1874 till 1894-? 92

East-the-Water Junior School, 1932-? 92

East-the-Water Primary School 92

Independent School, ?-1862-? 93

Jewell, John, schoolmaster, of East-the-Water, ?-1824 till 1830-? 93

Places of Worship 93

Bethel Chapel, independent, 1877 till present 93

Fisherman's Mission Church (the Iron Church), Anglican, 1880 till c1890? 93

St Peter's Church, Anglican, c1890- 94

East-the-Water Primary School Fellowship, interdenominational 94

Wesleyan Chapel 94

Inns, Public Houses and Hotels 94

Admiral Glynn, anecdotal 94

Barnstaple Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1842 till 1844-? 95

Blacksmith's Arms, Torrington Street, ?-1822 till present 95

Cavalier's Arms (corruption of Curriers' Arms) 96

Curriers' Arms (later Terminus Inn), Barnstaple Street, ?-1822 till 1839-? 96

London Inn/New London Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1822 till c. 1872-? 97

Princess Royal Inn, 7 Barnstaple Street, ?-1861 till 1907-? 98

Railway Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1844 till 1853-? 99

Railway Inn, Torrington Lane, ?-1878-? 99

Royal Hotel, Barnstaple Street, c1874 till present 99

Sailor's Inn/Sailor's Home/Sailor's Arms, Torrington Street, ?-1839 till 1908-? 100

Ship on Launch, Barnstaple Street, ?-1822 till 1929-? 101

Swan Inn, Torrington Street, ?-1822 till 2004-? 102

Terminus Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1857 till 1929-? 104

The Tree Inn, Barnstaple Street, 20th C. 105

Three Crowns, Clarence Wharf, ?-1822 till 1881-? 106

Welcome Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1844 till 1853-? 107

Other Institutions 107

Bideford Rowing Club, Clarence Wharf, ?-1891-? 107

Cemetery, Cross Park, 1889-present 107

Fire Station, location unknown, ?-1943-? 107

Gaol, Barnstaple Street, ?-1851-? 107

Homeless Hostel, 1978-1994? 107

Prisoner of War Camp (on Gas-Works site), 18th C. 107

Workhouse (at some period prior to 1830) 107

Miscellaneous notes 108

How, John, Commercial Wharf 108

Harbour Master records 108

Unattributed coasting vessels 108

Potential items of interest at the National Archives 108

Other sources to be examined 109

Wharfs located outside EtW 109

Bibliography 109

Appendix 1, Development of the railways 110

Early attempts to promote a line, 1832-c1845 110

Bideford and Okehampton Railway 110

Great Western Railway's possible involvement (foreshore purchases) 110

North and South Devon Railway 110

Taw Vale Railway and Dock Act (Barnstaple to Fremington) 110

The Direct Plymouth and Bideford Railway 111

Brunel's support for a Bideford connexion 111

The Railway Commission backs the North Devon Line, 1845 111

Revisiting the Bideford & Okehampton 111

Approval for an extension to Bideford in 1847 112

Barnstaple to Fremington opens in 1848, but horse drawn 112

Taw Vale Railway becomes the North Devon Railway and Dock Co. 113

Powers to produce an extension to Bideford were allowed to lapse in 1854 113

Bideford Extension Railway Co. (Fremington to Cross Park, Bideford) 1853-1865 113

London and South Western Company leases the line 1865-? 113

The LSWR's Crediton to Torrington Railway 1872-? 114

LSWR forced to build a Bideford to Torrington extension, 1865 114

Work gets under way, but LSWR drag their heels 114

The new extension finally opens in 1872 114

A new Railway Wharf 114

Later, East-the-Water related, references to the railway 114



Introduction

This document is not a complete representation of the research material in the author's possession as substantial amounts of notes still remain to be incorporated. However, it already gives a good indication of the business carried out in East-the-Water in the 19th C.

The following abbreviations are used in this document:

List of traders and establishments

Tradesmen and companies (excluding inns and pubs)

Anglo-American Oil Co., East-the-Water, automotive fuel supplier, ?-1924 till 1933-?

In January 1924 the Anglo American Oil Co., 'whose “Pratt's” brand is famous with motorists the world over,' became the first big concern to take down all their billboards, in support of a growing movement to preserve the beauty of England by doing away with such signs. Their North Devon division, based in Barnstaple, led the way. [“Local” North Devon Journal 10 January 1924 p4 c7]

In February 1924 a lorry belonging to this company, and driven by Charles Cloke, an experienced driver, fell to the bed of the Torridge during the bridge re-construction. The two-ton lorry, which had just set out on a round from the company's East-the-Water depot, was carrying 300 gallons of oil and forty two-gallon cans of petrol. It passed under the archway of the travelling crane, but, on coming to the temporarily narrowed section, broke through the temporary plank side-walk and wire railings to plummet to the bed of the river. The tanker ruptured, creating a slick on the river, and both the driver and his son (who was assisting him) were badly injured. The injured parties were removed to East-the-Water slipway, beside Pitt's Motor Works, where a doctor was in waiting to treat them. [“Sensational Accident at Bideford” North Devon Journal 7 February 1924 p7 c2]

In Feb 1928 “the Anglo-American Oil Co., the proprietors of Pratt's spirit,” announced a trial, intended to prove the merits of their “new motor spirit, Ethyl.” [“Great Motoring Test” North Devon Journal 09 February 1928 p8 c4]

On 21 Dec 1933, Charles Cloke died at the company's station, East-the-Water.

Austin, Jane (Mrs), of Torrington Lane, grocer, ?-1881 till c1898

Listed on 1881 Census at 4 Torrington Lane, as Jane Austin, aged 66, born in Bideford, wife of Joseph Austin, aged 62, Lime Burner, born in Wear Gifford, with: Son in Law, William Thorne (unmarried), aged 34, shopkeeper (groceries etc), born Bideford; and several children. For more details of William, see entry for William Thorne.

In 1881 the adjacent property, 3 Torrington Lane, is listed as “Torrington Stores & etc”

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as Austin Jane (Mrs), a grocer, in East-the-Water

On 19 Apr 1898 the Bideford Weekly Gazette [p4 c3] carried notice of the auction of a freehold dwelling-house and shop, “situate and being No. 4, Torrington Lane, East-the-Water, Bideford, late in the occupation of Mrs Jane Austin, deceased.” It is noted “The premises have been in the posession of the late owner (who carried out a Grocery Business) for a great many years”

Austin, Joseph, of Torrington Lane, grocer, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a grocer, address given as Torrington Lane.

See also the entry for Jane Austin, above.

Avery, George, of Barnstaple Street, marine stores dealer, ?-1872 till 1878-?

In 1872, A Mrs Avery, East-the-Water is mentioned as having been sold four pounds of stolen lead, from a pump taken from Saltern Farm. The next day seventy pounds of lead were sold to Mr. Avery, who neglected to record them on his books.The Recorder severely censured Avery, the marine store dealer, for purchasing articles without making any inquiry.” [“Bideford” Trueman's Exeter Flying Post 17 April 1872 p7 c5]. Shortly after “George Avery, a marine store dealer” of Bideford was then “fined £5 5s. for purchasing lead stolen from Saltren;s Farm, the property of Mr. Pridham.” [“Bideford” Trueman's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 30 April 1872 p3 c3]

In 1875 the Borough Petty Sessions refused to renew a game license held by Mr. Avery of East-the-Water. [“Renewal of Game License” North Devon Journal 22 July 1875 p8 c2]

Avery, George, listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a marine stores dealer, address given as Barnstaple Street.

Backway, John, of Torrington Lane, potter, ?-1878-1893-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as an earthenware manufacturer, address given as Torrington Lane.

Listed on the 1891 Census as John Backway, aged 60, Potter earthenware, born in Bideford. He is with his wife Jane, and son Sydney (a Tailor's apprentice). They are listed above James Redcliffe, Potter, of 2 Industrial Place, and Henry Philips, Potter, of 3 industrial place.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a potter, in Industrial Place [Kelly's 1919 directory identies Industrial Place as in EtW]

Baker, Isaac, unknown location, stone mason, ?-1822 till 1830-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 as Baker Isaac, under Stone Masons. Address given as East the Water.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Stone Masons, as “Baker Isaac (& marble) East the Water”

Likely to be the Isaac Baker who founded I. Baker and sons, but that requires more investigation.

Baker, I & Son, of Brunswick Wharf, mason and builders merchant, ?-1893 till 1953-?

See also The Devon Trading Company

[Gap in his presence of I. Baker within East-the-Water is probably because the business HQ moved to Brunswick Place, New Road, expanded there, before moving back to expand the business]

The Baker family purchased the Restarick shipyard and moved in when it closed in c1886.

A date stone on the current quayside wall of Brunswick Wharf is inscribed “JCB 1887” [R. I. Kirby, personal observation, June 2016] This appears to refer to John Cooke Baker, father of Isaac Baker, who died in 1898.

In May 1888 a dispute was in progress between a Mr. J. C. Baker, merchant, of Bideford, and the Northam Local Board, on account of which Mr. Baker drank rather too much [“Bideford County Petty Sessions” Bideford Weekly Gazette 29 May 1888 p5 c5]

On the 30 October 1898 John Cooke Baker died.[“Funeral of Mr. Baker” Bideford Weekly Gazette 08 November 1898 p5 c4]

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as ' Baker I. & Son, statuaries, stone, slate & marble merchants & builders' merchants, Brunswick place, New road & Brunswick wharf, East-the-Water; lime kilns; Mouth mill, Hartland & Cleavehouses & Hallsannery'

On October 15 1895 the following appeared in the Western Times [“Supposed Loss of a Bideford Ketch” p3 c6] 'The Ketch “Double X,” of Bideford, with coal, from Sydney to Bideford, sailed on the day of the furious gale for Bideford, and has not since been heard of. She is supposed to have gone down with all hands off Portishead. Her crew was three in number, the captain being Richard Walters, of Bideford, who leaves a widow and several children. She was owned by Mr. J. C. Baker, merchant, of Bideford.

The North Devon Journal of 31 October 1901 [“Serious Mishap at Bideford” p3 c7] reported that two vessels the Susanna and Sylph, both owned by Messrs. Bakers and moored alongside their wharf, had got into trouble. With the rising tide, the Susanna broke from her moorings, dragging the Sylph with her. The Sylph jammed in the corner of the bridge, breaking her bowsprit, which swung the Susanna round, causing her to catch under the fourth arch (known as “the large arch”), where the tide then forced her through stern first, eventually bringing down here mizzen-mast. The s.s. Devonia, being in her berth, came to the rescue and drew both vessels to safety.

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Baker I. & Son, statuaries, stone, slate & marble merchants & builders' merchants, Brunswick place, New road; depot & coal stores, Brunswick wharf, East-the-Water

In 1905 I. Baker and Son. won a contract to supply Bideford Guardians for the next six months. [“Bideford Guardians” Bideford Weekly Gazette 03 October 1905 p8 c5]

In December 1908 I. Baker & Son were listed in an East-the-Water list of purveyors of Christmas supplies section, advertising “coals for all purposes” [Bideford and North Devon Weekly Gazette 22 December 1908 p10 c4]

In 1910 “I. Baker & Son, Brunswick Wharf, Bideford” were advertising the availability of “agricultural ground white lime” . . . “fresh ground at our Kilns, East-the-Water, Bideford.” Delivery was available by the truck load to stations, or by lorry to customer's farms. [North Devon Journal 10 March 1910 p4 c4]

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory as 'Baker I. &. Son, statuaries, stone, slate, marble & granite workers, lime burners, coal, sand, gravel & .building material merchants &. motor lorry proprietors, Brunswick place, New road (Tel. No. 85); depot & stores, Brunswick wharf, East-the-Water '

Bill issued in 1924 by J. [sic=I?] Baker & Son, architectural and monumental masons, etc., of East-the-Water (NDRO ref. B127-6/2412)

In 1953, Major Ascott's pamphlet [W. Ascott, Random Notes on Old Bideford and District. Bideford: Gazette, 1953, advertisements on the back pages] carried an advertisement for I. Baker & Son” of “Brunswick Wharf, Bideford,” “for Building Materials and Household Coal.”

Baker, Percy, of East-the-Water, grocer, ?-1942-?

In a case concerning the theft of a rifle it was mentioned as having been lent to one “Mr. Percy Baker, who was then [1942] in business as a grocer at East-the-Water, Bideford.” [“Charge of Stealing as a Bailee.” Devon and Exeter Gazette. 23 July 1943 p1 c5]

Baker, Samuel, of Barnstaple Street, basket maker, ?-1919-?

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory as basket maker, based at Elliott's cottages, Barnstaple street

Barnstaple Turnpike Trust, ?-1828-1880?

Operated toll gates onto roads running from East-the-Water to Torrington and Barnstaple

“An Act for more effectually improving and keeping in repair the several Roads leading to and from the Town of Barnstaple in the County of Devon; and for making certain new Lines of Road to communicate with the same.” was enacted 2nd April 1827. Amongst its many provisions where:

Bideford Road; also the present Turnpike Road leading from the Way Post near Heale Farm in Tawstock aforesaid, through the several  Parishes of Tawstock Fremington, Westleigh, and Bideford, to the Town of Bideford in the County of Devon ;

Road from Bideford to Torrington; also the present Turnpike Road leading from the Road from said Town of Bideford through the several Parishes of Bideford, Wear Gifford, Huntshaw, and Great Torrington, to the Town  of Great Torrington aforesaid ;

Bideford Road by way of Instow; also for making a new Turnpike Road from or near a Turnpike Gate called Sticklepath Gate in the Parish of Tawstock near the Town of Barnstaple aforesaid, to the Town of Bideford aforesaid, by way of Instow, through the several Parishes of Tawstock, Fremington,  Instow,  Westleigh, and Bideford;”

“Barnstaple Turnpike Road” 24 Sep 2013. Online: http://www.turnpikes.org.uk/Devon%20-%20Barnstaple%20Road.htm. Accessed 28/06/2016

Toll road to Torrington known to be in use by 1828.

1879 toll house on Torrington Street sold off

Barum pattern milestones were installed in 1879. “Barnstaple Turnpike Road” 24 Sep 2013. Online: http://www.turnpikes.org.uk/Devon%20-%20Barnstaple%20Road.htm. Accessed 28/06/2016

1880 (15 Oct) Sale of materials of Toll House near goods station at East The Water, Bideford. (Devon Athaneum ref. B60B-14-06) [this would probably be the toll house on Barnstaple Street]

Barrow, of Torrington Street, brewers, 1861 till 1908-?

Barrow, Robert, of Torrington Street, brewer, 1861 till 1891-?

In an advertisement, published in 1907, the company claimed to have been “established since 1861” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 17 December 1907 p3 c7]

In 1862 one “Mr. Barrow,” a maltster, of East-the-Water, advertised for a married man with a good character, for farm work, about four miles from Bideford, with the offer to provide a cottage if required [Bideford Weekly Gazette 25 March 1862 p1 c4]

In Feb 1870 the following advertisement appeared in the Bideford Weekly Gazette [ 22 February 1870 p4 c ] “WANTED a YOUNG MAN to work at the Malting and Brewing. Apply to Mr. R. Barrow, East-the-Water, Bideford.”

In 1870 “Mr. Robert Barrow, brewer, East-the-Water” was in dispute with the London and South Western Railway Company. Land, on which lay part of his brewery premises, had, on 1 Oct 1870, been sold by its owner, Mr. James Peard Ley, to the railway company. The matter went to arbitration and Barrow was compensated and guaranteed the use of the premises required for his brewery until the termination of his tenancy. [“The Torrington Railway – Claim For Compensation” North Devon Journal 06 October 1870 p6 c2]

Reporting on a dinner and ball given for the 21st Devon (Bideford) Volunteers, the account mentions that “The spread provided by Private Barrow, of East-the-Water, was a very excellent one.” [“Bideford” Western Times 06 December 1872 p8 c5]

In January 1873 Mr. R. Burrow[sic], of East-the-Water, attended a meeting of the Urban Sanitary Authority to complain about the “annoyance and inconvenience caused by the bursting of his water pipes.” It was agreed to replace then, and charge Mr. Burrow only for the material. [“Bideford” Western Times 21 January 1873 p7 c5]

In January 1874 “Mr Burrow [sic], East-the-Water, provided an excellent spread” for “the annual supper and treat subscribed for by the tradesmen” for the “men employed at the Railway Station.” There being only 20 present, which was less than usual due to the recent extension of the line. [“Bideford” Exeter and Plymouth Gazette Daily Telegrams 07 January 1874 p4 c3]

In June 1874 the one Simon Westcott lay before the Local Board “the plans of buildings in course of erection at Mr. Barrow's, East-the-Water, the same being in accordance with the requirements of the bye-laws” Later the account mentions “The plans submitted for Mr.Barrow's buildings at his new brewery were approved of and passed in the usual order.” [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 11 June 1874 p3 c1]

In July 1873 “Alfred Barrow, a son of Mr. Barrow, brewer, East-the-Water, was knocked down by a horse” and his face badly cut, but he was recovering. [“Bideford” Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 04 July 1873 p6 c7]

In 1874 one “Mr. Barrow, brewer and maltster, East-the-Water,” applied to the Local Board “to be supplied with water by a meter into his new premises, East-the-Water, at a rate less than 2s. 6d. per thousand [feet]” The matter was passed to a committee for consideration. [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 01 October 1874 p2 c2]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as Barrow Robert a Maltster and Brewer, address given as Torrington Street.

In September 1881 a gipsy was reported to have taken pea sticks from a field belonging to Mr. Barrow, East-the-Water.” [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 16 September 1881 p8 c4]

In 1882 Mr. Robert Barrow senr., purchased a grocery store in Old Town, together with its stock. In 1883, a Mr. May was installed as its manager. [North Devon Journal 14 July 1887 p8 c3]

In June 1887 R. Barrow junr. was living in the Old Town property, whilst the store-manager, Mr. May, eat and slept at Mr Barrow's house in East-the-Water. [North Devon Journal 14 July 1887 p8 c3]

In 1887 a court case involved an incident outside the East-the-Water house of Mr. R. Barrow, when youths, seen loitering “at the bottom of Torrington Lane,” damaged his “pleasure boat, which was kept on the Quay, near the house,” by throwing it over the quay-side [“Throwing a Boat Over the Quay at Bideford” Devon and Exeter Daily Gazette 29 November 1887 p3 c6] The Western Times' account of the court case makes it clear that the quay in question was Mr. Barrow's own, and that the boat was usually kept there. It also gives Mr. Barrow's profession as “maltster” [“Bideford” Western Times 2 December 1887 p7 c3]

In 1891 it was announced that “The Bideford Volunteer Band will play in Mr. R. Barrow’s Garden, East-the-Water (weather permitting) on Monday evening next week.” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 20 October 1891 p5 c2]

In Feb 1895 a son was born to the wife of James Barrow, at Torridge House, East-the-Water [Bideford Weekly Gazette 05 February 1895 p5 c6]

Barrow, Robert & Son, of Torrington Street, brewer, 1861 till 1908-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as ' Barrow Robert & Son, brewers, East-the-Water brewery, Torrington st. & Blacksmiths' Arms P.H. East-the-Water'

An advertisement appeared in 1894 for “R. Barrow. Maltster : Brewer, East-the-Water, Bideford.” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 18 December 1894 p9 c8]

On Feb 3rd 1895 a child was born to the wife of James Barrow, at Torridge House, East-the-Water [“Births” Bideford Weekly Gazette 05 February 1895 p5 c6]

In December 1900 R. Barrow & Son. describe themselves as “Pure Beer Brewers, Brewed from Malt and Hops only,” give their address as “East-the-Water Brewery, Bideford,” and claim to have been established in 1861. [Bideford Weekly Gazette, 21 Dec 1900 p9 c5]

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Barrow Robert & Son, brewers, East-the-Water brewery, Torrington street & Blacksmiths' Arms P.H. Torrington street, East-the-Water

North Devon Gazette 22 December 1908 ("East-the-Water." pg10, col 4) carried an advertising note in its Christmas at the Shops section. "Established since 1861, the firm of Messers. R. Barrow & Son, well maintains its high reputation as pure beer brewers from malt and hops only.

Bartlett, of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1890 till 1950-?

Bartlett & Son, of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1890 till 1908-?

On 12 Feb 1890 The Bideford Gazette [p1 c1] carried the following "Bartlett & Son. Timber Merchants, &c., Bideford, North Devon. Steam saw mills: East-the-Water. Oak Gates, Larch Hurdles."

On 18 Nov 1890 the Bideford Gazette carried the following announcement [p1 c1], "Bartlett & Son. Timber Merchants. East-the-Water, Bideford. We beg to inform the inhabitants of Bideford and the public generally, that we have commenced business as Timber Merchants and have erected Steam Saw Mills for the purpose of cutting timber. In soliciting support, we respectfully invite attention to our Stock of English Timber, Plank, Scantling, Railway and other Fencing, Spokes, Gates, Hurdles, &c. We have for Sale at the Stores, or for Delivery at any Address, a large quantity of Firewood, sawn in short lengths for Lightings, Grates and Stoves. In connection with the above, the Coal, Sand and Gravel Business, carried on by Mr. R. Kivell, will be continued by us. Careful attention will be paid to all orders."

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as Bartlett & Son, timber merchants, East-the-Water.

Bartlett, Son & Boord, of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1902 till 1908-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Bartlett, Son & Board, timber merchants, steam sawing mills & contractors for keys, treenails, railway fencing &c. East-the-Water; & at Barnstaple

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Board Oscar Philip, timber merchant &c. see Bartlett,. Son & Board

In 1905 the employees of “Messrs. Bartlett, Son, and Boord (Bideford), sent an artificial wreath to the funeral of Mrs. William Bartlett, who died at Newport (Mon.) and was interred at Hatherleigh. Among the mourners was her son “Mr. E. W. Bartlett, of Bideford” [Western Times 18 December 1905 p4 c6]

In Nov 1906 the Bideford Weekly Gazette carried an advertisement announcing the reduction in prices for firewood from “Bartlett, Son & Boors, Steam Saw Mills, East-the-Water, Bideford.

In 1908 Messrs. Bartlett, Son & Board wrote to the council concerning the dangerous state of the road between Torridge Place and Nuttaberry [North Devon Weekly Gazette 07 January 1908 p8 c2]

Bartlett and Boord, of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1907 till 1912-?

In Jan 1907, a tender for hurdles from “Bartlett and Boor, Bideford” was accepted by the Devon County Agricultural Association, in connection with the Bideford Show [Western Times 19 January 1907 p2 c7]

In Feb 1912, a tender for hurdles from “Bartlett and Boor, of Bideford” was accepted by the Devon County Agricultural Association, in connection with the Plymouth Show [Western Times 24 February 1912 p2 c3]

Bartlett, Bayliss and Co., of Nuttaberry, timber merchants, ?-1918 till 1926-?

British Rail drew up a plan in 1918 for the area adjacent to Messrs Bartlett, Bayliss and Co. (NDRO ref. B733/2/18)

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory as 'Bartlett, Bayliss &. Co. Limited, english timber merchants, steam sawing mills, railway plant contractors, manufacturers of keys & trenails & converters of every description of english timber ; wood turners, Nutaberry works. TA " Bartlett, Bideford;" TN 15' [Trenails, or tree nails, are the wooden pegs used in building e.g. wooden ships]

Bartlett's, Messers E. W. S., of East-the-Water, timber merchant, ?-1942 till 1947

The Western Times of 24 Sept 1942 ["Bideford All Out : Novel Features of Salvage Drive" p4 c2] reported that, as part of a scrap metal salvage drive, during which a covenanter tank toured the streets and gave the public an idea of what their old bedsteads would look like once their country had finished with them. Amongst the many significant contributors, "E. W. S Bartlett, Timber Merchant, East-the-Water, found over a ton of heavy scrap."

The North Devon Journal & herald of 24 Sept 1942 ["Bideford Salvage Drive" p5 c5] carries a nearly identical piece, except the firm was now Messers. E. W. S. Bartlett

In the 28 Nov 1946 edition of the North Devon Journal-Herald [p2 c1] one Mrs Hutchings placed an advert for her pram, giving her address as Nuttaberry Bungalow, Bartlett's Yard, East-the-Water, and thereby localizing the firm at this point.

In 1947 the company changed its official name from E.W.S.Bartletts (Bideford) Ltd. to E.W.S. Bartletts (Devon) Ltd. [Western Morning News 06 June 1947 p5 c2]

Bartlett's, E. W. S., (Devon) Ltd., of East-the-Water, timber merchant, 1947 till 1950-?

In their edition of 21 Sep 1950, The North Devon Journal-Herald ["News in a paragraph" p6 c6] noted that "Bideford fire Service, under Stn. Off. F. Tithecott, was called to a fire in a sawdust dump at the yard of Messers. E. W. S. Bartlett's of East-the-Water, Bideford, on Sunday. The fire was brought under control in about an hour."

Bideford South sidings (Bartlett's sidings) served E W D Bartlett (Devon) Ltd., later W. Slee, Kynoch Ltd., Devon County Council, Bideford Gas & Coke Co., Bideford Electric Supply Co., British Petroleum and Shell Mex. with an industrial line. More information is available in Branch Lines to Torrington, Middleton Press, ISBN: 978 1 873793 37 4 / index 35 [http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/mickssrsource/srmiddgazet/bybooklistv2.html Accessed 8/4/2016]

Blake, E. L., of 43 Barnstaple Street, Dressmaker, ?-1900-?

Advertised on 19 June and 10 Jul 1900 in the Bideford Weekly Gazette [p4 c4 & p4 c3 respectively], as “E.L. Blake, Dressmaker, 43, Barnstaple Street, East-the-Water, Bideford. Work done on Moderate Terms.

Blake, William, East-the-Water, Coal Dealer, ?-1948-?

“William Blake, coal dealer, East the Water, was fined £1 5s. for the same offence, viz., having an unjust weight.” [“Guildhall” North Devon Journal 26 October 1848 p3 c2]

Blake, William, of Torrington Street, Butcher, ?-1844 till 1853-?

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Butchers, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under both Butchers and Bakers, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in the 1851 Census in Torrington Street, as William Blake, aged 32, Butcher (Master), born Wear Gifford, with his wife, family of three children, and a household servant.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under both Butchers and Bakers, when address given as East the Water.

Bideford & Bristol Steam Ship Co., of Brunswick Wharf, steamship operators, 1893 till 1920-?

In June 1893 local council were asked to consider the case of Quay dues for the Marquis of Lorne. “It transpired that when the steamship Marquis of Lorne unloaded regularly at the Quay an arrangement was come to with the owner to pay 11s 0d each trip, as Quay dues. As the company had now a wharf of their own East-the-Water, the harbour master asked what charge he was to make in the event of its being found necessary to unload her at the Quay.” The agreed upon charging her 15s, the rate for a casual customer. [“Bideford Town Council” North Devon Gazette 06 June 1893 p5 c2]

Launched by the well known local Methodist preacher and businessman Mr. G. Manley Tucker, who had the S.S. Devonia built, in 1894, on the Clyde. Finding success as a shipping agent, Tucker then moved into oil distribution, arising ot of this came the firm of Manley Tucker, based in Kingsley Road, and trading, in 1934, throughout southern England. [“Well Known Tradesman and Local Preacher” North Devon Journal 11 January 1934 p7 c4]

On 21 February 1894 the Western Times reported that the S.S. Devonia, of 100 tons, had made her first voyage from Bideford to Bristol. She had been built to replace the 16 ton Marquis of Lorne, “in consequence of the increased railway rates.” [ “Local News” Western Times 21 February 1894 p2 c4]

In Sept 1894 the S. S. Devonia, licensed to carry 179 people within Bideford Bar, was running highly successful sixpenny excursions to the bar. [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 06 September 1894 p8 c5]

In 1895, the Devonia, was operated by the Bideford & Bristol Steam Ship Co. [“A Bideford Vessel in Collision” Devon and Exeter Daily Gazette 20 May 1895 p3 c5]

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as 'Bideford & Bristol Steam Ship Co. Limited (A. Edward Tucker, sec.); offices, Brunswick wharf.'

In 1920 the Devonia appears to have been operating out of Brunswick Wharf as the ketch H.F. Bolt, delivering coal to I. Baker & Sons., collided with her as she was moored there. There was apparently an arrangement between the steamship company and Baker's men that the latter would shift the Devonia when the moorings were needed for a delivery. The defence rested, in part, on the fact that “The Devonia was properly moored in her general berth.” [devonia - I Baker - Devon and Exeter Daily Gazette 15 September 1920 p1 c6]

Bideford and Okehampton Railway Company, of Railway Wharf

See Appendix 1, Development of the railways

This was an early attempt to connect Bideford with South Devon via railway. It foundered relatively rapidly.

Bideford Anthracite Mining Company, of Barnstaple Street, coal, culm and mineral paint miners, 1846 until 1865

A caution on references to Bideford culm mine

During this period, not every reference to culm mining will necessarily refer to this company. Major Ascott (Random Notes on Old Bideford and District, p19-20) notes that during the re-widening of Grenville Street “a seam of culm was struck at Joce's (now Burton's) corner and worked to a depth of 44 feet. This is the same seam as at Chudleigh Fort and Chapel Park, extending up to the Rectory grounds where there were two shafts which are worked up to about the same time.” He goes on to say that, when he was a boy, he was told that the seam had been followed under the river from Chudleigh up to the Rectory shafts.” Ascott did not believe this to be the case, but at least one former miner has told me of tunnels running under the river.

The earliest 19th C. history of mining in East-the-Water is intimately connected with Thomas Pollard and is documented under the entry for him.

The Joce's corner works is possibly that referred to in the Bideford entry, in Pigot's directory of 1830, where it states “There are in the neighbourhood some culm, and mineral black paint mines ; the former are becoming very productive, having been worked but partially, until lately, for nearly two hundred years.” [Pigot's Directory for Devonshire, 1830. Pg. 183]

Early history of the Barnstaple Street culm find

In their edition for Saturday, December 15, 1827, the Royal Cornwall Gazette, Falmouth Packet & Plymouth Journal (Truro, England) reported that "A fine vein of culm has been found in the garden of Mr. Rodd, east the water, Bideford." [Issue 1277. 19th Century British Library Newspapers Col 3, Heading London, Monday, December 10-12] This discovery was possibly enough to re-activate interest in culm mining in the area, or was perhaps incidental.

On 18 December 1834 the North Devon Journal [“Bideford, Devon” p1 c1] carried notice that Mr. Rodd's garden was to be offered for sale: “TO BE SOLD, at Public Auction, by Mr. Henry Lear, (under the trusts of a Mortgage Deed,) the Fee-Simple and Inheritance in All those Two Messuages or Dwelling Houses, With the large Garden and Summer House attached, consisting of an Acre of Land, or thereabouts, situate in Barnstaple Street, in the Town of Bideford, now in the occupation of Mr. John Rodd.
The local advantages of the property are obvious, in the contiguity of the river, and its situation at the principal entrance to the town from the London road.
The Garden possesses a fine southern aspect, and Culm, in considerable quantities, lies a few feet beneath the surface.”

The formation of the company and the early years

In November 1846 a company was finally formed to exploit East-the-Water's anthracite –
“Anthracite Mines.--The preliminary meeting of the shareholders in this undertaking was held at Binney's 'Commercial Inn' on Thursday last, when the company was formed, and it was determined to work the mine in 64 shares of £100 each. The shares had all previously been taken, and a great number of applicants for shares were obliged to be rejected. We hear that a £5 premium per share was offered at the meeting and refused. Amongst the shareholders are the principal mercantile men of the port, and gentlemen from the neighbourhood of Barnstaple well conversant with mining affairs; and so great are the prospects which the mine presents, that it is expected that the premiums will amount to £20 a share in the course of a short time. A call of £20 a share was made.” [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 19 November 1846 p3 c1]

According to evidence given in a court case in 1856, the company started work in 1847.

By 1848 the company had commenced an adit from Barnstaple Street. “We are glad to perceive that John Maxwell, Esq., has recently come here to reside, to superintend the working of the Culm Mines lately opened near this town with the most flattering prospects. A tunnel has been commenced from their Quay Stores, East- the water ; and the miners have already come across a fine vein of culm. [North Devon Journal 12 October 1848 p3 c2] This adit entered the hillside near the back of the car-park (formerly Way's Yard) that lies just north of Crofts Independent Financial Advisers (formerly, the Ship-on-Launch Inn) in Barnstaple Street.

Folk memory suggests that it was possible to walk from the Quay Stores tunnel entrance, via an adit that ran all the way to Broadstone Quarry.

A viable lode is found at last

The North Devon Journal of 4 Jan 1849 carried the following article (“The Anthracite Mining Company.” p3 c4): “This has been a memorable week for the projectors of the culm mines worked in Bideford under the above name. A rich vein has been discovered at last; all former rumours to that effect having, it appears, been premature. The proprietors will soon be able to supply culm in any quantity, which well be shipped from the quay adjoining the building yard of Mr. Brook. The miners had a narrow escape from destruction yesterday week. It appears that in digging, they came across one of the old excavations made years ago, in which a vast quantity of water had settled: this water, which they had dug under. came through a narrow aperture above, and but for its timely discovery, would have deluged the mine and inevitably caused serious loss of life. The operations were suspended for some days in consequence.”

On 18 Jan 1849 the North Devon Journal (“Bideford” p3 c4) reported that “The Bideford Anthracite Mine is now in full work, the adit from the quay having been driven into the north lode: the lode is very large, and the product equal to the finest culm raised in Wales. The demand has rapidly increased, the consumption being on the lime establishments on the river; and large quantities are carted to the South of Devon. Maltsters are eagerly purchasing it for drying malt, by whom it is considered superior far to any supplied from Wales; and we hope the shareholders will now reap the fruits of their heavy speculations.”

Mr Maxwell, in responding to a toast, explained how Geologists had been certain their could be no culm in the rocks there. ['Welcome to the “Water Witch” Steamer' North Devon Journal 15 February 1849 p3 c3-6]

On 3 November 1849, Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette reported in its Bideford news [p8 c2], “The Anthracite Mining Company have just cut into a fine load of culm. It is hoped these culm works at Bideford will answer, as they are the means of giving employment to a vast number of people.”

The call for timber and the construction of the gantry

On 15 November 1849 the company were seeking timber for use in their mine--
“TIMBER. WANTED IMMEDIATELY, a quantity of LARCH, BEECH, or other Timber, calculated for Mining purposes, from 4 to 14 inches in diameter, to be delivered at the Anthracite Mining Company's Wharf, Bideford, Tenders for the same, stating quantity and price per Ton, to be sent to P. Beer Anthracite Mining Office, Bideford. November 15
th, 1849.” [North Devon Journal 15 November 1849 p1 c3]

On 29 November 1849, the North Devon Journal [p2 c4] carried the report of a Public Meeting, called to promote a railway to Bideford. The correspondent mentioned an unnamed individual who “had a long talk with one of the landed gentlemen in Bideford, whom he had in vain solicited to register the requisition. In the course of conversation his friend told him he liked their culm mine at Bideford, for it relieved him of his surplus poles. Why, if he would help them to the railway, not only would it give him a better market for his poles, but for everything else that he had to sell. But, like many others of his race, he did not like railways, and would like nothing to do with them.”

In a later court case, brought only after the gantry over Barnstaple Street had been removed, Mr. Pridham (for the company) 'pleaded “not guilty” to an indictment charging him and others with having, on the 1st January, 1850, erected a bridge across a certain highway so as to be a public nuisance.” When the prosecution then offered no evidence, on the grounds that the bridge had been removed, an incredulous jury were instructed to declare the company not guilty even though “the nuisance complained of had so long been in existence” [“The Anthracite Mine Nuisance” North Devon Journal 13 April 1865 p8 c3]

The company at Chapple Park?

White's Devonshire Directory of 1850, in it outline description of Bideford, reported that “Brown and grey paint and mineral black are got in the neighbourhood; and at Chapple Park is the valuable CULM MINE of the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company, lately established, and now employing a considerable number of hands. A tram road, more than a mile in length, is being made underground to the heart of the mine.” This secondary source appears to be the only one to suggest that the company had an interest in Chapple Park at this time, and may be in error. The description of the tram rode is consistent with this being a reference to the Barnstaple Street mine, rather than the mine at Chapple Park. The tram road seems to run the length of their sett, which appears to have extended about to the bounds of Chappel Park. It would, therefore, have been capable of connecting the company's quay at Clarence Wharf with the mine at Chapple Park, but the evidence seem to indicate that never happened, but that it was used for extracting anthracite from beneath the sett, and never connected with the Chapple Park mine. White's Directory, was, and still is, widely available so later secondary sources referring to the operation of the Anthracite Mining Company at Chapple Park should be treated with caution. The listing for the company in White's Devonshire Directory for 1850 is as follows “Bideford Anthracite Mining Co. culm and black paint owners, &c. Wm. Skews, agent.”

In September 1850 J. G. Maxwell, Esq., was greeted most enthusiastically upon his return from London. Not only was he “the principal promoter of the Taw Valley Railway scheme,” but “Messrs. Maxwell, Thorne, Chanter, Pridham, and Bragington, are working the Bideford Anthracite Mine, having an adit from the bed of the river, leading through, and towards the old works, and from the abundance of stone coal and culm daily raised and sold (which is of excellent quality for gentlemen's stoves and liming purposes) there is every prospect of the proprietors realising a good return on their outlay. They are also principally concerned in the Water Witch steamer, with Henry Lee, Esq., and in the North Devon Pottery, at Annery, near Bideford.” [“Bideford” Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 07 September 1850 p9 c4]” The “old works” mentioned here would probably be those at Chapple Park which were much older than the Barnstaple Street works.

Pollard and the company at odds

In October 1850, the action “MAXWELL AND OTHERS, Directors of the Bideford Anthracite Mineing Company v Pollard.” the directors sued Pollard for £23 13s 10d, for balance of account. At that time it was mentioned that there were 13 or 14 shareholders including Mr. A. Ley, Mr. T. Smith, and Mr. Pridham. Mr. Maxwell was the chairman. The parties agreed to arbitration [North Devon Journal 17 October 1850 p5 c4-5]. In the same month the company began an advertising campaign for its product, aimed at the local limeburners and maltsters. Culm for the limeburners was 5s. per ton, stone-coal for the maltsters 18s. per ton [“To Limeburners” North Devon Journal 10 October 1850 p1 c1]. The Pollard in question is likely to be Thomas Pollard, a local mining agent, and, at some point, owner of the Chapple Park mine. The company was clearly providing some service or asset for which they felt Pollard should have paid, but quite what that was is not clear.

On Nov 5th 1950 the company celebrated. Some splendid fireworks were let of from the garden belonging to the company, and tar-barrels were burnt. Later “about forty workmen employed at the Anthracite Mine” were treated to a supper at the New London Inn (where the southern end of the Royal Hotel and part of the station approach now lie), by “James Smith Ley, Esq., of Durrant, the proprietor of the land.” [“Bideford” Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 09 November 1850 p8 c3]

William Skewes, mining agent

The 1851 Census lists William Skewes, Culm Mining Agent, in a house which would later be 36 Barnstaple Street (now demolished). Skewes had been involved with the company since at least 1850 and the Census details are of considerable interest. The family comprises:

“Cornwall, Key” is a corruption for “Cornwall, Kea,” a village 2Km south of Truro. The William Skewes mentioned in this account appears to be the brother-in-law of Thomas Pollard, as a Cordelia Pollard, baptised 10 Nov 1799 in Cornwall, and daughter of George and Mary Pollard, married a William Skewes of Kenwyn, Cornwall on 9 Dec 1822. On 31 Jul 1831, Cordelia, daughter of George Pollard, miner, of Bideford, and his wife Grace, was baptised in Bideford, as an Anglican.

The Great Exhibition, 10,000 tons, and an injured miner

In 1851 the company appears to have promoted international interest in mineral black through the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, at Crystal Palace [“Bideford Coal Mine” Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 01 November 1851 p8 c3]. Their exhibit comprised “Anthracite coal. Compressed fuel, moulded in blocks. Mineral black paint, in powder, and mixed with oil or coal tar” [The Cornish Telegraph 09 May 1851 p2 c5]. Both oil and coal tar are traditional bases for paint, but using them as the base for the Bideford Black pigment gave a superior paint.

By the end of October 1851, the company had sold 8,000 tons of culm in that year [“Notices to Correspondents” Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 08 November 1851 p8 c6]

In Nov 1851 a shareholder wrote to Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette [1 November 1851 p8 c3] noting that the mine was capable of producing 100 tons per day, should that be required. The correspondent noted “It is particularly adapted for burning the English lime-stone, which is proved by the large quantities which find their way by land carriage into the interior of the county where the lime-rocks are worked—I allude to Southtawton, Launceston, Southmolton, and other places.” Also that ' another production of this mine, “The Bideford mineral black paint,” which is patronised and exclusively used by our government in the navy, and for all purposes in the preservation of Iron, wood and canvas. Thanks to the Great Exhibition, other Governments are now enquiring about its qualities, so that the trade in this article will in all probability greatly increase.'

The North Devon Journal of 18 December 1851 [“Bideford” p5 c1] carried a report of the annual dinner for the workmen of the Anthracite Mine that was given by J. S. Ley, Esq., at the 'London Inn,' where John Danniel was host. With Mr. Maxwell and Mr A. Ley, Esq., solicitor, both unable to attend, Mr. Beer, the company secretary, presided. The health was drunk of the chairman Mr. J. G. Maxwell, the other directors, William Thorne, T. L. Pridham, John West, and T. B. Chanter. It was stated that the mines were in a position to produce 600 tons per week, and that during the present year 10,000 tons of culm had been raised and disposed of. Furthermore, Mr. Beer claimed that the local lime-burners without exception were using culm from the mine, and the hope was that burners throughout the Barnstaple river might also adopt it, as it could be supplied 2s. 6d. per ton less than they could get it from any other quarter.

In February 1852, a Cornish-man and miner, was injured at the “Bideford Anthracite Works” when, whilst he was propping up a drift, a portion of the rock fell on his head. A miner by the name of Mr. Brock rendered assistance, and, following medical assistance, he was expected to return to work in a few days. [“Bideford” Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 07 February 1852 p8 c2] The same month wreckage from the “Mary Ann, Morcombe, master, belonging to the Anthracite Mining Company, Bideford,” and built by W. M. Crocker, was retrieved at Barnstaple. She had sailed for “Gannel” [Gannel Road, Newquay, Cornwall] on a Saturday, with the wreckage found on the Monday following, and so was feared lost. [“Bideford” Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 14 February 1852 p8 c3]

A shareholder in trouble

In August 1852, one of the original share-holders seemed to be selling off his shares, which he has been unable to pay for in their entirety, for the following appeared in the North Devon Journal of 29 August 1852 [p4 c2]
“BIDEFORD ANTHRACITE MINE,
Situate on the East of the navigable River Torridge, and contiguous thereto. THREE SHARES, OF ONE HUNDRED POUNDS EACH, towards which the present proprietor has already advanced £270, with all benefit henceforth to accrue from such payment, and his entire Right and Interest as well as the Mine as in the Premises held therewith, ARE OFFERED FOR SALE, BY TENDER. Written Tenders are to be delivered to Mr. Charles Carter, jun., or left at his Office in Bideford, on or before Tuesday the 14th day of September next, shortly after which day, if any Tenders be accepted, the person having made it will receive Notice thereof. Dated Bideford, 13th August, 1852.” This Charles Carter jun, was one of the Bideford gentry, who became Charles Hole in 1852, by royal grant, to meet the terms of the will of Henry Hole, late of Ebberley House, in the parish of Roborough. [North Devon Journal 14 October 1852 p8 c3]



The company goes public

On 22 December 1852, the London Daily News [p1 c4] carried notice of the public flotation of the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company. The company directors were:

The secretary was Mr. Philip Beer, of Bideford, and the company offices were in Barnstaple-street, (east the-water), Bideford.

The prospectus declared that the mine “produces anthracite coal and culm of very superior quality; the celebrated Bideford mineral paint, used upwards of 20 years in the dockyards of England, for the supply of which the directors have contracted with the Lords of the Admiralty. Traces of plumbago have recently been discovered.
“This company is in possession of the fee of several dwelling houses, malthouses, extensive warehouses, and gardens ; also wharves and quays adjoining the Bideford River, 158 feet wide, 20 feet deep, to which the steamer to the port resorts, paying rent and quay dues to the Company. The area of the property held in fee extends 24 fathoms north and south and 19 fathoms east and west, under which the lodes of coal, culm, and paint run. An engine, with two boilers, is erected thereon, having ample power to sink the mine 20 fathoms deeper, as also houses and machinery for grinding mineral paint and making compressed fuel, of the smallest culm, for burning in common grates. The main engine and hauling shaft is sunk on this property, and the whole produce of the mine is hauled by a water balance, so arranged that it is only shovelled once, viz., from the levels and stopes as it is dug, conveyed by tram waggons to the company's wharves, and tipped into shutes, from which a vessel of 50 tons can be loaded in a few minutes.
“In addition to this property, the Company have a sett of the adjoining lands through which the lodes pass, about ¾ of a mile, at 1-12th dues. The deepest level is only 20 fathoms below the adit level and has been driven 120 fathoms on the course of the lode of coal and culm, varying from 1 foot to 25 feet in thickness. The paint lode is parallel to this; and a few fathoms distant, and to the north of the main lode is another of coal and culm. The 20 fathom level has been much more productive than the 10, which has been driven about 180 fathoms ; and there is no doubt the lodes will be found still more productive at greater depth.” Note that there is no mention in the above of Chapple Park, and the sett would fall somewhat short of it, even if it commenced from the entrance to the adit on Barnstaple Street.

The notice anticipates an increased market when “as the North Devon Railway is nearing completion, and will be extended to within a few yards of this Company's wharves at Bideford before the end of next year.” (a fine case of wishful thinking, as the railway arrived in 1855). The 64 original shares, held by “a few adventurers,” were to be divided into 4,096, then 1000 additional £3 shares were to be issued to the public.

Testimonials were included as to the propriety of their products for various applications, e.g. W. Smith, Master Painter, of Chatham Dockyard, suggests, of the mineral black, “Its superiority is observable in the preservation of wood, iron, and canvass; it covers the work well, dries quick and hard, is more durable, does not blister like other blacks, and has a body inferior only to white lead.” Another testimonial came from “Combemartin Smelting Works,” where Cornelius Bawden was using Bideford anthracite in his reviving furnace for reviving litharge (a reddish yellow form of lead oxide), part of the process of smelting silver.”

A technical opinion, in the form of a report by Richard Morcom, produced in Oct 1852, presents the current situation in terms of fathoms already cut, and estimates the size of the reserves at 23,500 tons of culm. A note from W. Skewes, updating the situation for Dec 1852, states that, since the earlier survey, “we have driven about 20 fathoms east on the south branch in the 20 fathom level, and have cut a fine course of culm of very superior quality” . . . “in the course of a few feet it opened from 4feet to 5 feet in thickness and is still opening. I should remark that this lode is cut to within 40 or 50 fathoms of the old workings or sinkings, which are manifest from the appearance of the surface, and leading directly to the old mine, leaving no doubt whatever in my mind that this lode will continue to the old mine, which of course must turn out many thousands of tons of culm,” these being additional to Morcomb's estimate. [London Daily News 22 December 1852 p1 c4]





“Bideford Anthracite Company” was listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Mining Company, when its address was given as East the Water.

In 1854 the executors of the late Charles Roberts Esq. auctioned, in Barnstaple, 128 shares in the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company [North Devon Journal 23 March 1854 p4 c1]

In 1855 “John Johnston [sic] and Wm. Skews were summoned on the complaint of Bryant Ching, William Lake, and Samuel Crocker, for depositing timber and rubbish on the public highway leading from Torrington-lane to the beach, thereby causing an obstruction,” and were ordered to clear the obstruction within a fortnight. This would have been the old public slipway next to Halfpenny Wharf, which was the public road to the beach when Torrington Street was part of Torrington Lane. Ching and Crocker were potters, whose businesses needed access to the shore for the sand they used in their pottery (which could only be obtained from the eastern shore), Lake was a lime-burner. Johnson was a shipbuilder bringing in timber for his yard, whilst Skews was probably bringing in pit-props for the Anthracite mine. [“Obstructing the Highway” North Devon Journal 13 September 1855 p8 c3]

In 1855 the combined annual production of Bideford anthracite and Bovey Tracey lignite was reported as 1,430,620 Tons, but only 114 tons were exported from Bideford [Robert Hunt ed. Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Geological Survey of Great Britain, 1855]

In 1856 the return of anthracite for Bideford was 5,036 tons. [Roderick I. Murchinson & Robert Hunt. 1871 Op.Cite. Pg 128]

An investor in trouble

On 8 May 1856, 1,152 of the original 4,096 shares in the company were sold by order of Assignees in Bankruptcy, applications were to be addressed to Mr. William Thorne, of Barnstaple [“Bideford Anthracite Mine” North Devon Journal 08 May 1856 p1 c5]

A very informative court case

In the 1856 case of Mill v Pridham, Dingle & others [North Devon Journal 17 July 1856 p3 c2-3], the plaintive, William Jewell Mill, sought compensation for the loss of natural support from his land and the loss of water from a well that supplied a malthouse on the same property (both of which he claimed were caused by the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company's mining activity), and also for “the nuisance caused by erecting a tramway from the works to the wharf occasioning a nuisance by the dust blowing therefrom into a dwelling house belonging to him.” The 1851 Census does not mention Mr Mill, but lists both Eliz. Tucker and James Vickery adjacent to the Ship-on-Launch, and therefore near Clarence Wharf. This case is therefore about the Barnstaple Street mine, rather than the Chapple Park mine.

Mill claimed “the malthouse is now useless except for a place for lumber, for which it has been used since 1848. When fit for use, it made £5 a year on average and was let for six. The garden is surrounded by a wall.” Mill claimed the wall had shown signs of subsidence, and that through the dust nuisance had already lost one tenant from his house. Mill wanted to have Capt. Pollard inspect the works underneath his land, but Capt. Skews (for the company) had told him that the relevant levels had now been closed up, but that he had driven toward a point beneath a certain pear tree. Mill offered paperwork to prove the house had been in his family for 160 years. Counsel for the defence stated “The works in question commenced 9 years since; I do not know when the working in Chapple Park was commenced.” Mr. Mill suggested that he had offered to sell the property to Mr. Dingle (of the Anthracite company) for the £260 he had been offered some years ago. Capt. Pollard was the sworn. Key points from his evidence, as far as the mines are concerned, are as follows:

Following Mr. Pollard's evidence, James Vickery was sworn. He testified that his premises, which was contiguous to that of Mr. Mill, had also suffered cracks; that he had known the malthouse 50 years ago, when it had plenty of water; that his water was also gone; that he could not open his windows because of the dust and it was injuring his premises. Indeed the judge later in the day, inspected the tramway and premises, whereupon many of the residents were making similar claims.

Capt. Skews, on being sworn, included in his testimony the following:



In August 1856 “Mr. Skewes, of Bideford” was chairing a public meeting of the Monkleigh Band of Hope, a group promoting abstinence from intoxicating drink [“Monkleigh Band of Hope” Bideford Weekly Gazette 19 August 1856 p1 c1]

On the morning of February 10th 1857“the wife and family of Mr. John Lile, East-the-Water, were terribly frightened by a sudden crash upstairs as though the roof chimney and all had tumbled in.” The culprit was a fragment of a cast-iron wheel, weighing about twelve pounds, that had broken through the roof and ceiling, to embed itself in the floor between the children's beds. It transpired that this was part of a crab-winch flung from the Anthracite Coal Works 150 yards above the street, “the proper precautions for arresting its motion not having been taken by the parties in attendance, the machinery ran down with such violence that on coming to a sudden stop, the wheel was shivered to pieces.” [“Devon” The Cornish Telegraph 25 February 1857 p3 c4; “Fifty Years Ago” North Devon Journal 14 February 1907 p3 c4]

In March 1857 Mr. W. Skews is found addressing the Bideford Band of Hope [“Band of Hope” Bideford Weekly Gazette 17 March 1857 p1 c1]

In Oct 1857 Thomas Hamlyn, aged 32, miner, met his death when lockjaw set in, following an accident in the “culm mine, belonging to the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company,” when a three to four cwt. block crushed his leg, whilst he was working with fellow-miner Walter Chapman.” He left a widow and three children [Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 24 October 1857 p3 c6]. The same month, the total production of Bideford anthracite that year was published as 4,173 tons [“The Coal Trade of Britain” Cardiff and Merthyr Guardian, Glamorgan, Monmouth, and Brecon Gazette 30 October 1858 p7 c4]

In Sep 1857 130 shares in Bideford Anthracite Mining Company were auctioned by the executors of the late James Smith Ley, Esq., of Durrant House [North Devon Journal 10 September 1857 p1 c5]

In 1857 the return of anthracite for Bideford was 4,173 tons. [Roderick I. Murchinson & Robert Hunt. 1871 Op.Cite. Pg 128]

In June 1858, a bargeman, James Gould, was crippled whilst loading culm “at the Anthracite Mining Company's Quay, East-the-Water. “It being low water it was necessary to place a plank to project about three feet from the quay to empty the culm from the wheelbarrows into the barge.” In doing so he slipped and fell into the boat, sustaining life-changing injuries [“Accident” North Devon Journal 03 June 1858 p8 c1]

On the 24 March 1859 the North Devon Journal [“Bideford” p5 c4] reported that “the shareholders of the Anthracite Mine, East-the-Water, have received a dividend of five percent, as the profits of the works during the past year.”

In 1860 William Skewes, the Company's Mining Agent, died, his wife Cordelia, died in 1861.

The 1861 Census lists Richard Sherman, Capt of Culm Mines, in a house which would later be 36 Barnstaple Street (now demolished), and with one servant.

In November 1864 the Bideford Anthracite Mine witnessed a particularly tragic accident. The inquest, held at the Terminus Inn, heard how miner of 25 years standing, called Thomas Johns, who was working with Wm. Francis, “was breaking culm at the side of the pit, where the timber had been cleared away for that purpose. The surface was very hard, and when that was broken the culm commenced running so fast that the deceased was buried up to his neck.” Francis “tried to pull him out, but could not; called for assistance and ran to the opening for that purpose. On his return found his head covered which he cleared. Deceased was then alive and asked witness to pull him out but he could not. he managed to keep his head clear, and Parkhouse soon came. They tried to stop the culm from running but could not as it was small. Witness never saw culm run so fast. Other assistance came and all tried in vain to keep the culm from running. Deceased was not released for nearly two hours after.” William Parkhouse, who said he had worked there for 15 years, and John Trott had also rendered assistance. Trott stated that he had worked in the mine for 17 or 18 years and “there was always plenty of timber provided by the company. The verdict was “Accidental Death” “The company intended to present the widow with £10 and be at the cost of burying the deceased. The jury unanimously gave their fees to the widow. Francis was 31 years of age, and a very steady man. He was to have taken to the duties of captain of the mine yesterday, but the fatal casualty has ended all.” [Western Times 15 November 1864 p3 c2] The North Devon Journal reported the deceased as Wm. Francis, a miner killed, whilst working on the 50 fathom level at the Anthracite Mine, by the collapse of insufficiently propped culm. [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 10 November 1864 p5 c3-4]

The Anthracite Mining Company's lofty tramway crossing the street East-the-Water, was condemned on Monday by the grand jury at Bideford quarter session. The question now stands over for the next quarter session, when a petty jury will declare whether the tramway can or cannot be considered a nuisance so far as the general public are concerned.” [“Bideford” Trewman's Exeter Flying Post 11 January 1865 p7 c6]

In April 1865 the Western Times reported “This mine, which has been worked for many years, is behind East-the-Water. The black dust and tram bridge over the street, for wheeling the mineral to the river side, being no improvement to the locality. Having become unprofitable, the company has ceased to work it, and the tramway is being removed. The anthracite was used at the limekilns in the locality and elsewhere, but it has all now come to an end.” [“The Anthracite Mine Closed” Western Times 11 April 1865 p3 c2]

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 01 August 1865 carried and advertisement for the sale of the Anthracite Mining Company's assets, listed as:

BIDEFORD, NORTH DEVON. VALUABLE WATERSIDE PROPERTY, WHARF, and HOUSES. TO BE SOLD with IMMEDIATE POSSESSION, the following desirable FREEHOLD PROPERTY, Situate East-the-Water, Bideford, belonging to the Anthracite Mining Company. Consisting of AN EXTENSIVE WHARF AND QUAY, With River Frontage of about 128 feet, Called Clarence Wharf, with the Storehouses, Sheds, Stables, and other Buildings erected thereon.
A CONVENIENT DWELLING HOUSE AND OFFICES, Lately occupied by Mr. Honwood, and also used as the Offices of the Mining Company.
THREE COTTAGES adjoining the Wharf Now occupied by Thomas Lane, John Collacott, and George Bird.
A DWELLING HOUSE with GARDEN and Convenient Offices, On the East side of the street, now in the occupation of Mr. Samuel Galliver as yearly tenant, and A MALTHOUSE adjoining, now occupied by Mr. P. Colwill.
A CULM YARD adjoining the Street, with the GARDEN and LAND In the rear thereof, containing altogether about ONE ACRE. There is an Engine House and other Buildings erected thereon, from which the engine and machinery will be removed.
The above property is held in fee simple
and is situated on the line through which the Railway from Bideford to Torrington will be carried, and as the Wharves and Quay (which can be largely extended by enclosing the foreshore) occupy the entire area between the line and the River, and also adjoin the street, offers unusual advantages for Trade and Shipping purposes, or for the construction of a Dry Dock.”

Tenders were accepted for the whole or for parts. The solicitors for the transaction were to be Chanter & Finch of Barnstaple, with the accepted party notified on 2 August. The notice continues:-

THE ENGINE with the MACHINERY, PLANT, and MATERIALS belonging to the Mine, Will be SOLD BY AUCTION, on the premesis, early in August, of which full particulars will be published” [“Freehold Property” Bideford Weekly Gazette 01 August 1865 p1 c1]

1866 was the approximate date on which the company wound up, having lost considerably through working Chapel Park (according to an article on coal mining in North Devon published in 1873, which mentioned that 'Nearly fifty years ago Mr. Thomas Pollard, the owner of the “Black Paint and Anthracite Mine,” opened up an old working at Chapel Park, about a mile from the town. It was worked by the “ Bideford Anthracite Company,” which lost considerably by the undertaking ; and some six or seven years ago, i.e. c. 1866 the company wound up.' [North Devon Journal 03 April 1873 p7 c2] It is notable that Chapel Park is not listed amongst the sale details above.

Bideford Black Ltd., of Chapel Park, mineral black miners, 1928-1935

The Western Morning News of 30 Dec 1926 [“Anthracite in Bideford District” p3 c3] reported:
'A considerable sum has been expended during the year on the work of prospecting for anthracite in the Bideford district, and the promoters state that the results obtained have fully justified the expenditure.

'The grade of anthracite found in the district has proved to be of high calorific value and low in ash. The mineral Black (“Bideford Black”) deposits are to be worked on considerably larger and up-to-date-lines.'

Bideford Black Ltd. was registered in 1928 and went into voluntary liquidation on 12 Dec 1935 [Register of Defunct Companies. Springer, 1990. 57].

Bideford Black Pigments Ltd., of Chapel Park, mineral black miners, c1935 till 1969

“Howard St Louis Cookes, a black sheep of the family, had been sent to Bideford from London in 1935 to help liquidate the struggling Bideford Black Mining Company as part of his job as a well-to-do chartered accountant. However, ‘Uncle’ Howard had seen potential in the business and, despite lack of support from his family, had decided to buy it and bring it back to life.”

['Memories of “Uncle Howard”' Bideford Blackblog. 19 March 2013 Online: http://bidefordblack.blogspot.co.uk/2013/03/memories-of-uncle-howard.html Accessed: 1 Jul 2016]

1949 Silver Lead Mines: Document. Application for permission to develop land by H.St.L. Cookes. Bideford Black. Pigments Ltd. Bideford 1949 and map. (Devon Athaneum ref LBB1-19)

“Howard Cookes’ connections in the Ministry of Defence had secured business as a supplier of paint for tank camouflage, boat anti-foul and something to do with ammunitions(?). He later married an ‘Avon Lady’ who despite much speculation had no connection to the MAX FACTOR cosmetics company, who already had a factory based in East the Water, another lucrative avenue for business - Bideford Black being used in the production of mascara.” ['Memories of “Uncle Howard”' Bideford Blackblog. 19 March 2013 Online: http://bidefordblack.blogspot.co.uk/2013/03/memories-of-uncle-howard.html Accessed: 1 Jul 2016]

“Eventually Howard Cookes had folded the company in 1969, after a brief period running a wood yard and manufacturing wooden sheds at Chapel Park that were sold in Southampton.” ['Memories of “Uncle Howard”' Bideford Blackblog. 19 March 2013 Online: http://bidefordblack.blogspot.co.uk/2013/03/memories-of-uncle-howard.html Accessed: 1 Jul 2016]

Bideford Gas and Coke Co. (limited), of Nuttaberry, 1835-1849

Their function was taken over by the Western Area Gas Board

Estd. 1835 [Register of Defunct Companies. Springer, 1990. 57]

On 24 December 1835 the North Devon Journal [p1 c1] carried an advertisement from Bideford Gas Works, for “a few good workmen, as fitters up of Iron Works.” They were to apply to John Sage, at the works.

Registered as limited in 1870, when the London Gazette carried a notice of the intention of the Bideford Gas and Coke Company to continue to produce, store, and sell gas utilizing their “existing gas works and works connected therewith already constructed and situate on the east side of the River Torridge” . . . “which gas works and premises are bounded on the north by waste land and lime kilns belonging to Sir George Stucley Stucley Baronet on the east by an arable field belonging to the said Sir George Stucley Stucley on the south by an arable field belonging to the feoffees of the Long Bridge of Bideford and on the west by a public road or highway leading from Torrington lane to the Barton and other farms and a railway in course of construction from Bideford to Torrington” [“Bideford Gas” London Gazette,. 22 Nov 1870 p5077 c2]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as Bideford Gas and Coke Company Co. (limited) address not given. Secretary James Joce. [Head office in Grenville St., but Joce lived in, and was contactable at, Springfield Terrace]

The Devon Archives hold a copy of deposited plans for the Bideford Gas (Provisional Order) from 1891, (ref. QS/DP/513) the catalogue describes the plans as showing “gas holders, coal sheds, retort house, dwelling, meter house, purifying shed and lime house.” A 16 ft to the inch plan of the works and surrounding area is included.

The Gas act of 1948 vested the undertaking in the Western Area Gas Board, with Bideford Gas and Coke being dissolved on 1 May 1949. [Register of Defunct Companies. Springer, 1990. 57]

Bideford Motor Works, of Torrington Street, garage, ?-1911 till 1932

In November 1911 Bideford Motor Works were advertising trials of the new Ford motor-care [“No Car Equal to a Ford” North Devon Journal 23 November 1911 p4 c3]

In 1914 an advertisement, for Michelin stockists, listed the company as “Bideford Motor Works, East-the-Water (W. J. Pitt, prop.)” [Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 30 May 1914 p4 c5]

In August 1932 the stock-in-trade and effects of Mr. W. J. Pitt, of Bideford Motor Works was presented for auction [“A. W. Cock, F.A.I., North Devon Journal 04 August 1932 p1 c3]

In 1936 a W. J. Pitt and Co. were still in the motor trade in Bideford, but it is not clear where they were based.

Bird Charles, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper, ?-1893-1902-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as shopkeeper, East-the-Water.

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Bird Chas. shopkeeper, Barnstaple st. East-the-Water

Boaden, John, of Barnstaple Street, baker, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Boaden John, baker, Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

Boord, Oscar Philip (see Bartlet & Son.)

See Bartlett & Son.

Bow Sarah Ann (Mrs), of 1 Chudleigh Villas, landlady, ?-1893-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as offering apartments at 1 Chudleigh villas, East-the-Water

Braund John, of Barnstaple Street, Joiner, ?-1919-?

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory as a joiner based in Barnstaple Street.

British Rail, 1948-present

Created by nationalization in 1948. See Appendix 1, Development of the railways for details.

British Rola, of Nuttaberry, speaker systems, c1947-1949

The first, wartime, British Rola factory was in the former Elliot's Garage, west of the river.

"When War broke out, Rola opened a dispersal factory at Bideford in Devon, in the former garage of Messers Elliot and Sons. ["British Rola." Graces Guide to British Industrial History, Graces Guide Ltd, 2016. Online: http://www.gracesguide.co.uk/British_Rola. Accessed 4 June 2016]

On 2 Jan 1947 the North Devon Journal ["Bideford's New Industry." p7 c3] announced plans for "one of the subsidiary companies of British Rola Ltd." to begin development, hopefully in June, of a new factory on a 5 acre site "adjacent to the railway and adjoining Messers. Bartlett's premises." This would appear to be the site on which Jewsons currently sits. The article suggests "It is expected that the new accommodation will be used for the manufacture of products now being made by various companies in the group." It is currently unclear whether this plan ever came to fruition.

Having become Rola Celestion Limited in 1948, and specialising in speakers for radio and television sets, the new company never-the-less went into receivership in 1949 and was bought by Truvox, a manufacturer of public address systems.

It is uncertain whether their plans for an East-the-Water plant ever got beyond the drawing board.

Brook, William, of Cross Park, merchant, lime burner, then shipbuilder, ?-1822 till 1844-?

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Burnard, Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, ship-owner and lime burner, ?-1806 till 1839-?

In 1806 Thomas Burnard, a former Bideford Mayor, who, in 1803, was the co-owner of 19 ships and the outright owner of four, delivered 42 cargoes of culm, 19 or coal, and 25 of limestone, from South Wales to Bideford. Some was delivered to his lime kilns in East-the-Water, described as being on "the west side of the Lane leading toward Barnstaple." As, nineteen of his vessels were purchased new, it is suggested that his business must have had an impact on Torridgeside shipbuilding. He also partnered with William Tardew in the lime-burning trade [Nix, 1991, pg 334-335]

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Burnard Thomas, Lime burner, East the Water”

Burnard, William, location unknown, lime burner, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Limeburners, as “Burnard William, East the Water”

Burrow, Elizabeth (Mrs.), location uncertain, dressmaker, ?-1991 till 1901-?

Not found in a search of the 1891 Census

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a dressmaker, East-the-Water

Not found in a search of the 1901 Census

Carder, William, location uncertain, potter, ?-1808 till 1834?

The WikiTree site provides various biographical details , including the fact that Carder was born in Barnstaple and died in 1834 in Bideford, and had married Catherine, the widow of Simon Carder. [M. Edmunds, “William Carder (abt. 1774 – 1834)” WikiTree, 9 Mar 2016. Online: https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Carder-194 Accessed 4 Mar 2017] An earlier wealthy Bideford potter had gone by the name Simon Carder, though he was probably not this Catherine's husband. Other sites suggests different genealogical solutions, so this is clearly a somewhat difficult family to investigate.

"For potters who shipped their wares around the world, to part ownships was not unusual, but, in the early 19th C., the East-the-Water potter William Carder had a share in no less than five vessels, possibly because his was a sea going family." [M. Nix, A Maritime Historycheck ...1991] William Carder 's shares were in the following vessels (with their tonage, registration year, and Carder's period of ownership) [based on Nix, 1991 Op. Cit.., pg 206]

He had a house and court in East-the-Water which he leased from the Bideford Bridge Trust [The Report of the Commissioners Concerning Charities; Containing That Part Which Relates to Devon. Volume 1. 2 Volumes. Exeter:T. Besley jun. 1826. Pg 298]

A 25cm high Bideford earthenware harvest jug by William Carder, presented to Mr Thomas Clements”, “the front with 4 individual verses, the scrolled handle flanked by branches and leaves and a smiling lion” The auction site included a picture that shows that this was typical of the harvest jugs still produced in Bideford and bears several verses followed by the text “William Carder maker Bideford December 25th 1829”

Carter, Anne, location uncertain, straw hat maker, ?-1839 till 1841-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Carter Anne, Straw Hat Maker, East the Water”

Ann Carter appears on the 1841 Census, aged 20, with her occupation given as bonnet maker. She is living with James Carter, grocer, and is probably his daughter.

Carter, James, Barnstaple Street?, shopkeeper, ?-1830 till 1844-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Shopkeeps & Dealers in Groceries & Sundries, as “Carter James, East the Water”

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Carter James, shopkeeper, East the Water”

James Carter appears on the 1841 Census, aged 60, with his occupation given as Grocer. With him is Ann Carter, aged 20, bonnet maker. [See entry for Anne Carter, above] The premises appears to be somewhere close to the NE end of the long bridge.

In June 1842 inspectors seized deficient scales and beams in the shop of James Carter, prompting his daughter, Ann Carter, to assault the officers [North Devon Journal 02 June 1842 p3 c4]

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers & dealers in groceries & sundries, when address given as East the Water.

By the 1851 Census James Carter, aged 70, is living in New Street, Bideford, and gives his occupation as labourer, pauper.

Chanter, of Clarence Wharf, manure merchant, 1843 till c. 1887

Mr. Geo Heard, in evidence to a case, stated that a store which he owned on Clarence Wharf was first used for storing manures in 1843, by the late Mr. Chanter,. They were so used for three or four years.” [“Bideford Borough Magistrates” Bideford Weekly Gazette 29 April 1884 p5 c2]

R & H.E. Chaplin's Ltd., Barnstaple Street, Hauliers, ?-1920 till 1942 -?

In 1920, Chaplin & Co. of Bideford, took first place, at Bideford horse show, amongst the nine entrants in the category for 'Army “Boarded-out” light draught horses, suitable for Field Artillery' Second place went to John Way & Son, whose yard was nearby [“Bideford Horse Show” North Devon Journal 05 August 1920 p2 c4]

In the 1930's the firm appears in the prize list of Bideford Horse Show as “r, and he, Chaplins, Ltd.” [“Bideford Horse Show” North Devon Journal 10 August 1933 p7 c5

In 1942 it was reported that Messrs Chaplin's Ltd., of Bideford and Barnstaple, were amongst those firms that had undertaken to employ a percentage of disabled ex-servicemen in its branches and subsidiary companies. [North Devon Journal 12 March 1942 p4 c1]

In the report of the funeral of Mr. A. G. Braunton (who died in 1833), it was noted that, on coming to Barnstaple, he was employed “for a considerable period as carter to Messrs. Chaplins, the well-known delivery agents.” Sympathy was sent from the staff at “Messrs. Chaplin's, Ltd. Bideford.” [“Sudden Death of Mr. A. G. Braunton, at Barnstaple. North Devon Journal 28 September 1933 p5 c1]

Derek Barnes [personal conversation, 2016] described “Chaplin's Haulage” as being located between Victoria Wharf and the railway good's-yard. He also mentioned a block of stables between Victoria Wharf and Barnstaple Street, north of Devon Trading and opposite the East of the Water restaurant. It was not clear if these belonged to Devon Trading, or Chaplin's, or were shared by both.

Chappel, Thomas, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-?

Not found in a search of the 1841 census

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers, when address given as East the Water.

Not found in a search of the 1851 Census

Ching, Briant/Bryant, of Torrington Lane, earthenware manufacturer and coal merchant, ?-1841 till 1867

1841 census shows Bryant Ching, aged 25, potter, in East-the-Water (addresses does not have a street name). Also listed, at Potter's Lane (on the west of the river, near the Strand), is one Richard Ching, aged 35, Yeoman, born in county, who may be related, and suggests the Ching family were wealthy.

1851 Census lists him in Torrington Lane, as Bryant Ching, aged 37, Coal Merchant & Potter employing 9 men, born Clovelley. He is listed with his wife May and three sons. The listing is below that for the Sailors Arms Inn.

The North Devon Journal of 1 April 1852 [p1 c4] carried a notice that, “on the 4th April 1851,” “the Partnership formerly existing between Bryant Ching and Eliza Ching, Potters, of the Parish of Bideford” was dissolved. The notice was dated March 31st 1852.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Coalmerchants and dealers and also Earthenware Manufacturers, when address given as East the Water.

More details may be available in Dale Ching, Evelyn Jonescu. A history of Chings: descendents of William and Mary Ching of Woolfardisworthy, Devonshire, 1700s to 1993. D Ching, 1993. However this only seems to be available in five libraries, and all those are in the New World.

Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 28 June 1867 [p2 c6] reproduced the list of bankrupts from Tuesday's Gazette, a list headed by “Bryant Ching, Bideford, potter and coal merchant, July 5”

Ching, Eliza, of Torrington Lane, potter, ?-1851-?

Listed in the 1851 Census in Torrington Lane, as Eliza Ching, aged 39, partner with a master potter, born Bideford. She has an 'Employee at the house'

A partnership between her and Bryant Ching was dissolved in 1851, see entry for Bryant Ching.

Cole, John Tapley, potter, of Cross Park, ?-1849-1852

In 1849 Mr. John Tapley Cole, of Cross-park” . . . “potter” was sued for an unpaid debt of £3 10s. 2d lent to him by a “Mr. James Rooker, of Bideford, solicitor.” Cole failed to attend the hearing and was ordered to pay 30s. in monthly instalments of 10s. [“Rook v Cole” North Devon Journal 14 June 1849 p5 c3]

In 1850 an action was brought “for £13 10s., for money paid by the plaintiffs [John Tapley & Robert Cole] for the rest of the premises at Crosspark, after the defendant [Bragington] had agreed to take the same off their hands.” It was argued that the agreement was between John Tapley Cole and Braginton and that, by bringing the action in the joint name of John and his father, Robert, the Coles had prevented Bragington pleading a set-off, thus leaving him no answer to the action. The Coles argued that John had acted on behalf of both of them, but the judge refused to accept that and adjourned the case so that the plaint could be corrected by expunging Robert's name. [“J.T. and R. Cole v. Bragington” North Devon Journal 16 May 1850 p5 c3]

The report of the re-convened case summarised the agreement as follows “the action was brought to recover the sum of £13 10s., being a quarter's rent of a pottery and premises at Cross-park, which the plaintive had paid for the defendant. The premises were first taken by the plaintiff of Mr. Buck; but in the month of December, 1848, an agreement was entered into by the plaintive and the defendant, whereby the latter agreed to take the pottery premises off the hands of the former, and to pay a rent for the same until Christmas day then next. In consequence of this arrangement, the rent from Christmas 1848 to Michaelmas 1849 was paid by the defendants; but the quarter's rent to Christmas last, when the premises were given up, had not been paid; in consequence of which the plaintiff, who was primarily liable to the landlord, had been obliged to pay it.” In his defence Mr. Braginton's lawyer claimed that “Upon Mr. Bragington and his partners taking off the business, it was understood by all the parties that, in case it should not answer their expectations and upon request, Mr. Cole was to give Mr.Buck notice of his intention to quit. The result was that prior to Lady-day 1849 the company found the business was a loosing concern, and they accordingly desired Mr. Cole to give proper notice to his landlord to quit at the Michaelmas following. Mr. Cole, however, hoping to oblige the company to continue the business, omitted to do so, and he was consequently obliged to keep on the premises till Christmas last. Mr. Braginton admitted his liability to pay the rent to Michaelmas, but he had a set-off against the plaintiff by which, after allowing the rent till Michaelmas, there was a balance of £10 19s. due to the defendant.” During cross-examination Bragington stated “I am one of the four partners we took off the pottery business; I entered into the agreement on 13th December, 1848, as one of such partners.” Judgement was given for the defendant. [J.T. Cole v. Bragington” North Devon Journal 18 July 1850 p2 c4]

Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette for 3 Jan 1852 [p5 c6] carried an announcement of the death, on Dec 28th, at Parkham, of John Tapley Cole, aged 33, “third son of Mr. Robert Cole,of Bideford.”

Collier, John, of Torrington Street, biscuit baker, ?-1861-?

The 1861 census lists, in Torridge Street, one John Collier, Head, Mar, 38, Bisquit Baker & c (Master), employing 2 men and 2 boys. From attempts to align the census record he would seem to have been at about 46 Torrington Street

Colwill, Philip, of Barnstaple Street, timber merchant, lime burner, and coal dealer,?-1857-1893

In August 1857 a dispute, Fry v Colwill, was heard at the Borough Magistrates Meeting, settling the respective amounts of rates due on a lime kiln, East-the-Water, from the former occupant (Mr. Fry) and the current occupant (Mr. P. Colwill). Fry, the then tenant having quitted at Christmas 1856 [Bideford Weekly Gazette. 11 August 1857 p1 c1]

1859, North Devon Gazette advertises “Just Received, a Cargo of Best Peruvian Guano, in good condition, And now selling for Cash at £13 per Ton, At P. Colwill's Stores, East-the-Water, Bideford; and at Annery, Monkleigh.” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 3 May 1859 p1 c1]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a timber merchant and coal dealer address given as Barnstaple Street.

Probably applies to the Barnstaple Street Pollard stores

In January 1890, extraordinarily high tides flooded property at East-the-Water. “A large quantity of salt and manure were damaged and lost at Messrs. Pollard's stores; and also at Messrs. Packard and Colwill's.” [“Extraordinary High Tides” Bideford Weekly Gazette 28 January 1890 p4 c6]

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 14 March 1893 [p4 c3] carried a notice for an executors auction at the timber yard, Barnstaple Street, on 23 Mar 1893, where, on behalf of the representatives of Mr. P. Colwill, the following were to be sold: the whole stock of well-seasoned Oak, Ash, and Elm TIMBER, Lifting Gear, Beam and Scales, Waggons, & c."

Colwill, Philip, of Torrington Street, shopkeeper, ?-1919-?

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory as a butcher based in Torrington Street.

Colwill's Stores (see Colwill, Philip, of Barnstaple Street)

See entry for Colwill, Phillip.

Colwill William, torrington lane?, beerhouse, ?-1850-? (see Sailor's Arms)

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Beerhouses, when address given as East the Water.

1851 Census has Sailors Arms Inn, Torrington Lane, with Elizabeth Colwill, head, aged 30, Innkeeper, born Bideford. Her eldest son is William and she is listed as married, so her husband is perhaps away on business.

Devon Concrete Works

In December 1944 the Devon Concrete Works sought to expand their site at Cleave-houses onto nearby King George's Field, land acquired for playing fields. [North Devon Journal 14 December 1944 p5 c5]

During the war premises belonging to Devon Concrete Works at Bideford were requisitioned, and although the Company made repeated requests for their return the authorities had not agreed to release them. Brig. C. H. M. Peto, the Member for the division, has taken up the matter and has informed the company that the premises will be derequisitioned immediately” [North Devon Journal 18 October 1945 p6 c5]

At the public enquiry into the proposal to lease land at St George's Field to “Devon Concrete Works Ltd.” it was suggested, by Mr. W. T. Braddick, that East-the-Water had always been the industrial section of the town.” and that “there was a concrete works all ready to be used on the East side of the river” which should ideally be considered instead. [North Devon Journal 29 November 1945 p6 c2]

From the above, it looks as if the concrete works east of the river was the property requisitioned during the war, but more evidence is required.

Cooke, George, location unknown, merchant, ?-1822 till 1830-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Bar Iron Merchants, Coal Merchants, and Merchants. Address given as East the Water.

On Jun 27 1827 one George Cooke, merchant of Bideford, placed an advertisement offering for sale the estate of Commons, or Cumins, with dwelling house, barns, stables, gardens, orchards, and 60 acres of land. Then in the occupation of Mr. Thomas Stone. [Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 14 July 1827 p4 c5]

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Coal Merchants, as “Cook George, East the Water”

Courtice, location unknown, lime burner, ?-1822-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Lime Burners. Address given as East the Water.

Cortis, location uncertain, potter?

Rogers noted that Jane Willcock owned a pottery in East-the-Water, still working in 1828, and let successively to Simon Madge, _ Cortis, and Swain and Pluckey (or Plucknett) [Wm. Henry Rogers Notes on Bideford. 3 vols. Typed manuscript. c1920-40. Chope Collection, Bideford Public Library. Vol 1, Pg 79].

Crocker, John, location uncertain, boat builder, ?-1839-?

See separate document on Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Crump, William, 40 Torrington Street?, horse breaker, ?-1893 till 1894-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a horse breaker, East-the-Water

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 16 October 1894 carried an announcement [p4 c1] for the auction, by Braddick & Sons, without reserve of the "whole of the Carriages, Traps, Harness, Business Requisites, Household Furniture, and other Effects, of Mr W. Crump, Colt Breaker." To take place at 40 Torrington Street, East-the-Water.

Daniel, John, of London Inn, Barnstaple Street, coal dealer, ?-1839 till 1853-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Daniel John, Coal merchant, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Coal Merchants, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in the 1851 Census at the London Inn, Barnstaple Street, as John Daniel, aged 82, Coal Merchant, born Hartland. With him are his son James Daniel, aged 41, a journeyman shipwright, born in Bideford, and his daughter-in-law Harriet Daniel, aged 41, Innkeeper, born Parkham.

The North Devon Journal of 18 December 1851 [“Bideford” p5 c1] carried a report of the annual dinner for the workmen of the Anthracite Mine that was given by J. S. Ley, Esq., at the 'London Inn,' where John Danniel was host.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Coal Merchants and Dealers, when address given as East the Water.

Dannell, Edwin, location unknown, hatter, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Hatters (as Dannell Edw.) when address given as East the Water.

1851 Census has no Edwin Dannell in East-the-Water, but one, aged 42 in Allhalland Street, a master hatmaker employ

Dark, William, of Barnstaple Street, boot and shoe maker, ?-1839 till 1851-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Dark William, Shoemaker, East the Water”

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Boot & Shoe Makers, when address given as East the Water.

The 1851 Census lists him in Barnstaple Street, as William Dark, aged 50, Shoe Maker Master Employing 2 ap[prentices], born Fremington.

Davie, John (1640-1710), of Colonial House, tobacco merchant, late 17th C

John Davie's house was, until he moved to Orleigh Court in the parish of Buckland, part of the building now known as the Royal Hotel.

It has been suggested that he was, for a time, Bideford's wealthiest merchant.

Aside from being Davie's residence, the Colonial Buildings are also said to have been used for storing tobacco, and the claim circulates that, at one point, all the tobacco bound for Europe flowed through those buildings. [see entry for the Royal Hotel]

Delbridge, James, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper and postmaster, ?-1892-1902-?

“At East-the-Water, Bideford, a post-office will shortly be opened.” [North Devon Journal 31 March 1892 p8 c3]

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as Dellridge, James, a shopkeeper & post office, in East-the-Water, as James Dellridge

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Delbridge James, shopkeeper, & post office, Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

The Delbridge family were connected with the post office for longer than implied here, but this needs further research.

Delbridge, Nellie (Miss), of 21 Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper and post-mistress, ?-1919-?

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory as Delabridge, Nellie, shopkeeper & sub-postmistress, 21 Barnstaple street.

Devon Trading Co. Ltd., of Barnstaple street, builders merchants, 1883?-1953-?

In 1883 Agnes Christie (wife of William Langham) sold the land formerly belonging to Jane Willcocks, Thomas Evans, and the Crown Commissioners, to the Baker family, who ran the wharf under the name The Devon Trading Company [Bideford History . . . with Peter Christie: Brunswick Wharf. My Town Bideford. Issue 28, July 2015. Publishers of the North Devon Gazette, 2015. Page 14.]

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 14 March 1893 [p4 c4] carried an advertisement for the Devon Trading Company Ltd., given their location as Queen's Wharf, Bideford, and their product line as Cement, Lime, Bricks, Slates, Socket Pipes, General Building Materials. Foreman was W. Stephans, Managing Director, E. T. Scammell. The head office was given as Exeter and there was another branch in Ilfracombe.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as 'Devon Trading Co. Limited, cement, sanitary pipe, brick & slate merchants (E. T. Scammell, manager), East-theWater; & at Exeter & Ilfracombe'

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Devon Trading Co. Limited, cement, sanitary pipe,brick & slate merchants (A. W. Dearman, managing dir.), Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

The National Archives have a record in their Board of Trade and successors: Marine Maps and Plans section, dated 1905 and described as 'RIVER TORRIDGE, CLARENCE WHARF, BIDEFORD, DEVONSHIRE; CONSTRUCTION OF STONE RETAINING WALL AND RECLAMATION WORKS BY DEVON TRADING CO.LTD.; assent granted; related to H7326, 3 maps' (ref. BT 356/9672)

Bideford Weekly Gazette of 09 May 1905 ["Bideford Council:Miscellaneous." p5 c4] reported that "The Board of Trade wrote acknowledging the receipt of the Council's letter on the plans for the proposed new wharf in East-the-Water, to be erected by the Devon Trading Company, the line of the frontage of which the Council, submitted, should be kept back to that of the Western Counties Agricultural Association."

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 20 Jun 1905 [p8 c3] carried the report that "the Council approved the line laid down by the Local Government Board for the new Clarence Wharf, East-the-Water, the line adopted by the Board above being the one originally suggested by the Town Council."

On 20 July 1905 the North Devon Journal carried the Board of Trade's official notice that a proposal had been received from the Devon Trading Company, Limited, for permission to construct a stone retaining wall (160ft. in length) in front of and about 35 feet from the existing river frontage line of Clarence Wharf, Bideford.” . . . “the southern extremity [of Clarence Wharf] being about 400 feet north of the eastern end of the Bideford Bridge. [North Devon Journal 20 July 1905 p1 c5]

"Best House Coal lowest current prices. Apply to The Devon Trading Co., Ltd., Clarence Wharf, East-the-Water" [The Bideford and North Devon Weekly Gazette, 3 mar 1908 p4 c6]

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory as a cement, sanitary pipe, brick, slate & builders' merchants, based in Barnstaple street, East-the-Water as well as at Exeter.

In 1953, Major Ascott's notes [W. Ascott, Random Notes on Old Bideford and District. Bideford: Gazette, 1953, advertisements on the back pages] carried an advertisement for “The Devon Trading Co. Ltd. for all Building Materials Clarence Wharf, Bideford.” They were one of the few to give a phone number, “Tel. 105/6.”

Doherty, George, of Torrington Street, Coal Merchant, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a coal merchant. Address given as Torrington Street.

Domestic Appliances Home Services, of Chudleigh Works, shopkeepers, ?-1957-?

Articles of partnership in the NDRO (ref. B127-6/2159) dated 11 Feb 1957. Address of business given as Chudleigh Works, Bideford East.

Dornat & Co., of Torrington Street, carbonated drinks manufacturer, ?-1902 till 1919-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Dornat & Co. mineral water manufacturers, Torrington street, East-the-Water

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a mineral water manufacturer, based in Torrington Street.

[Their also had branches in Barnstaple and Ilfracombe. Soda water and ginger beer containers from them have been seen on e-bay.]

Dymond, Robert, Industrial Place/Railway Terrace, bootmaker, ?-1890 till 1902-?

In April 1890, one “Mr. R. Dymond, shoemaker, of Industrial Place, Bideford,” was called to give evidence at the inquest into his sons death [“The Inquest” Bideford Weekly Gazette 01 April 1890 p5 c1]

The 1891 Census lists him below Henry Phillips and at 4 Industrial Place, as Robert Dymond, Shoemaker, employer, born in St Giles. He is listed with his wife, a daughter, a lodger and a domestic servant.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a bootmaker, in East-the-Water

In Sept 1897 one “R Dymond (East-the-Water)” had a tender rejected, for providing boots for the workhouse inmates with boots [Bideford Weekly Gazette 14 September 1897 p8 c2]

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Dymond Robt. boot ma. Railway ter. East-the-Water

Eastman, William, location unknown, coal merchant, ?-1844-?

Does not seem to be on the 1841 Census (unless as a Wheelright on a farm)

Listed in Pigots 1844 as a coal merchant based at 'Wharf' in Bideford, so could be in East-the-Water

Does not seem to be on the 1851 census

Ebbsworthy, Fredrick, of Torrington Lane, shopkeeper, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Ebbsworthy Fredk. butcher, Torrington la. East-the-Water

Elliot, Stephen, of Barnstaple Street, carpenter, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a carpenter. Address given as Barnstaple Street

A ref. In Kelly's 1919 directory to Elliot's Cottage in Barnstaple Street may be linked with this individual.

Ellis, T, of 25 Torrington Lane, Butcher and Purveyor, 1909-?

The following announcement appeared in the Bideford and North Devon Weekly Gazette for 14 Dec 1909 [p4 c5] "Mr. T. Ellis, Butcher & Purveyor, Begs to announce that he has opened business at 25 Torrington Lane, East-the-Water, Bideford, And in soliciting the esteemed support of the public assures prompt attention to all orders, Fresh supplies daily, and Family Requirements specially catered for. Not address Torrington Lane, East-the-Water, Bideford.

Embery, Arthur John, of Barnstaple Street, fire office agent, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Embery Arthur John, agent, Manchester Fire Office, Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

Embery, John Holloway, of Barnstaple Street, joiner, ?-1861 till 1902-?

Listed in the 1861 Census in the Colonial Buildings, as William Embrey, Widower, aged 55, master carpenter employing 1 man and 2 boys, born Staffordshire, N.K. His son John H is also there, listed as a carpenter, with three daughters.

The The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 04 May 1869 carried an advertisement from “J. H. Embery, Joiner and Undertaker, 24, East-the-Water” advertised for an apprentice.

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a joiner. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as 'Embery John, joiner, East-the-Water'

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 23 Apr 1889 [p4 c6] carried a typical advertisement “Established over 70 years, J H Embery, Joiner, Cabinet-maker, upholsterer, undertaker. Conservatories, Venetian Blinds, Picture Frames, Turning, &c. Furniture carefully Packed, Removed, & Warehoused. references given. House Agency in all its Branches. Funerals completely furnished. Your favours are respectfully solicited.”

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Embery John, joiner, Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

The council were offering for sale “a site for two cottages having a frontage of 30 feet 3 inches in Barnstaple Street, East-the-Water, being the piece of land on which stood two cottages recently purchased from Mr. J. H. Embery,” together with, as another lot, a “site for store or stable” “on the south side of the previous lot. [The Bideford and North Devon Weekly Gazette, 27 Oct 1908, p4 c2]

John was actively involved in The Bethel, Torrington Street, and his son William James Embery went as a missionary to China, going on to become director of the China Inland Mission's operations in Melbourne, Australia [The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957) Mon 25 Jun 1945, p13 c4 ]

Embery, William, of Barnstaple Street, carpenter, ?-1839 till 1868-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Embery William, Carpenter, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Joiners and carpenters, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Carpenters, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under 'Joiners and Carpenters' and 'Dealers in Groceries and Sundries', when address given as East the Water.

Listed in the 1861 Census in the Colonial Buildings, as William Embrey, Widower, aged 55, master carpenter employing 1 man and 2 boys, born Staffordshire, N.K. His son John H is also there, listed as a carpenter, with three daughters.

In 1868 a Mr William Embery of East-the-Water was trying to let a residence "at Cleavehouses, with ample Garden, 4 Bedrooms, 4 other rooms, with conveniences." [Bideford Weekly Gazette, 24 Mar 1868 p4 c5]. This

[It is probably this family that gives its name to the alley known as Embery's Drang.]

Emery and Cox, Torrington Street, automobile and general engineers, ?-1908-?

Based at Bideford Motor Works (on the site formerly used by the Royal Hotel as stables)

North Devon Gazette 22 December 1908 ("East-the-Water." pg10, col 4) carried an advertising note in its Christmas at the Shops section. "At the Bideford Motor Works, Messers, Emmery & Cox, automobile and general engineers, have a roomy and up-to-date garage, with excellently equipped repair works which enable them to undertake any motor engineering with confidence. Clients will find the value of their experience and advice of the utmost value. Powerful cars are on hire, and of tyres, tubes and accessories there is always a complete stock."

Essery, Richard, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1844-?

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers & dealers in groceries & sundries, when address given as East the Water.

The only Richard Essary in the area on the 1851 Census seems to be too young and his occupation is given as 'labourers son'

Esso, Cross Park, petrol station ?-?

An Esso filling-station once occupied the site now used by Cornwall Farmers.

Esso began life as the Anglo American Oil Company in 1888. Anglo-American was then acquired by Standard Oil in 1934. The UK branch took the phonetic version of its initials (SO) as its new name, Esso, in 1851 [“History of Esso in the UK” ExxonMobil. Online http://www.exxonmobil.co.uk/UK-English/about_history_esso.aspx Accessed:16 Oct 2016]. By 1951, however, Esso was already a household name in the UK, for in 1935, after Standard Oil take-over of Anglo-American, the familiar “Pratts” brand was promptly re-branded as “Esso” [“Esso's Introduction” North Devon Journal 09 May 1935 p6 c7].

Evans John, of Barnstaple Street, shipbuilder, ?-1822-?

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Evans, Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, shipyard owner and timber trader, c1822 till 1838

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Evans Thomas, of Torrington Lane, marine store dealer, ?-1878 till 1902-?

1851 Census has a Thomas Evans, in Torrington Lane, aged 38, a Blacksmith (journeyman), born in Appledore. It is uncertain if this is the same person.

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a marine store dealer. Address given as Torrington Lane.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a marine store dealer, in East-the-Water.

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Evans Thomas, marine store dealer, Torrington. Lane, East-the-Water.

Facey, John, of Barnstaple Street, lime-burner, then miller and corn factor, ?1822 till c1848

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Lime Burners (as just 'Facey'). Address given as East the Water.

The 1841 Census lists one John Facey at Westcombe, aged 35 (rounded to 5 years), Corn Factor, born in county. With wife Margaret aged 40 , two daughters and a new-born son John.

On the 6th Feb 1845 Facey dissolved his partnership -

"Notice is hereby given, that the Partnership between us the undersigned, Charles Roe, of Redcliff-street, in the city of Bristol, Corn Factor and seedsman, and John Facey, of Bideford, in the county of Devon, Miller, as Millers and Corn Dealers, at Bideford aforesaid, was this day disolved and put to an end by mutual consent. All depbts due and owing to or from the said concern, at Bideford aforesaid, to be received and paid by the said John Facey; and all debts due and owing by or from the said trade, in Redcliffe-street aforesaid, to be received and paid by the said Charles Roe, whose trade in Redcliff-street will be in future conducted and carried on by the said John Facey : As witness our hands this 6th day of February 1845.

Chas. Roe.

John Facey."

[The London Gazette. Number 20441, 11 Feb 1845, Page 398.]

This London Gazette entry is significant as it links Facey with two places in which the Southern Counties Agricultural Co-Op would later have premesis, thus suggesting that the WCA building was on the site of Facey's mill.

Will for one John Facey, cornfactor and miller, probate granted 14 Jan 1848 may provide more information.

Fison & Co., of Barnstaple Street, manure manufacturers, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a manure manufacturer. Address given as Barnstaple Street and Ipswich. Agent given as Frederick Lee.

Folley, Richard, of East-the-Water, baker, ?-1902-?

Richard Folley, baker, East-the-Water, Bideford was charged with driving a vehicle without a lamp” [“Bideford County Sessions” Bideford Weekly Gazette 23 December 1902 p3 c2]

Fry, of Barnstaple Street, limeburner, ? till 1857

In August 1857 a dispute, Fry v Colwill, was settled at the Borough Magistrates Meeting, settling the respective amounts of rates due on a lime kiln, East-the-Water, from the former occupant (Mr. Fry) and the current occupant (Mr. P. Colwill). Fry, the then tenant having quitted at Christmas 1856 [Bideford Weekly Gazette. 11 August 1857 p1 c1]

Fry, Thomas & Co., of Agricultural Wharf, Barnstaple Street, corn, manure & seed merchant, ?-1893 till 1914

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 24 January 1893 reported “Mr. Thomas Fry, of Wear Gifford, as agent for Messre. Odam and Co., held his audit at the New Inn Hotel, Bideford, on Teusday Last. Mr George Pollard attended and spoke in cordial terms of Fry.

The earliest advertisement yet found for Thomas Fry or Agricultural Wharf is from 19 Sep 1893 when the Bideford Weekly Gazette [p4 c3] carried an advertisement stating that he was now receiving cargoes of prime barley at it. He was also selling “cake, oats, maize, barley meal, flour & c.”

In 1894 the advert remained similar, “Thomas Fry, of Wear Gifford Mills, Is now Receiving at his Agricultural Wharf, East-the-Water, Bideford, Cargoes of Prime Barley.” But with the addition to the product line of “Pearson's English Linseed & Cotton Cake. Also Cargo Moss Litter.” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 20 March 1894 p8 c3]

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 22 Oct 1895 ["Bideford Urban District Council." p8 c1] carried a report that, at the Council meeting, "Mr. Fry's explanation and apology for not sending in plans for his new building, East-the-Water, within reasonable time, were accepted – Councillor Cock said he was Mr Fry's builder. He was not responsible for the plans, but he could assure the Board that the building was evolving by degrees, and that it was an oversight by Mr. fry that plans did not reach the council earlier."

"Mr, T. Fry, of Wear Giffard Mills, and the new Steam Bakery, East-the-Water, yesterday gave a quantity of bread to the poor of Bideford. The distribution took place at the Town Hall."[North Devon Journal, 02 January 1896, p8 c4]. This "new Steam Bakery" may be the one that appears on advertisements as North Devon Bakery, at about this time.

In Sept 1897 Fry and Co.'s flour wagon took part in Bideford Cyclists' Carnival [Exeter Flying Post 23 September 1897 p5 c4]

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Fry Thomas & Co. corn, manure & seed merchants, Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

"Silver Drift Flour, Obtainable from all the leading Grocers. Thomas Fry and Co. WEARE GIFFARD MILLS, Stores: Agricultural Wharf, East-the-Water, Bideford [Bideford Gazette, 11 Dec 1906 p1 c2]

North Devon Gazette 22 December 1908 ("East-the-Water." pg10, col 4) carried an advertising note in its Christmas at the Shops section. "T. Fry & Co., whose extensive stores are at the Agricultural Wharf, East-the-Water, have a large clientèle for seeds and manures, and their silver drift flour (obtained through the principal grocers) will be found admirable for the Christmas pudding and pastry.”

The North Devon Journal of 08 January 1914 [“Frank E. Routley” p1 c6] carried a notice that Frank E. Routley had taken over from Fry.

Fulford J. U. & Sons, of Clarence Wharf (later of Queens Wharf), ?-1891 till 1919-?

Listed on the 1891 Census as John Underhill Fulford, living at Glen Cottage, aged 28, gardener, born in Northam. He is with his wife Mary, son Herbert and Wilfred.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as Fulford John Underhill, market gardner, East-the-Water.

In 1897 an advertisement appeared for “J U Fulford. Corn & Seed store, Glen Cottage (East-the-Water)” noting that he supplied Oats, Barley, Barley Meal, Maize, Maize Meal, Bran, Beans, and Oil Cake” and was also “Agent for Golding's Manures; 'Climax' Sheep Dip, &c. [Bideford Weekley Gazette 16 Feb 1897 p4 c3]

1901 Census has him as John Underhill Fulford, with no address (but listed between St Peter's Church and Chapel Park, so could be anywhere in East-the-Water), aged 39, Seed Merchant, on own account, born Northam.

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Fulford John Underhill, corn & seed merchant, Glen cottage ; stores, Clarence wharf, East-the-Water ; attends market Tuesdays

In 1904 an advert for “Goulding's Potassic Superphosphates, for killing moss and improving pasture” states that “Testimonial and Price List” are available from "J. U. FULFORD, Corn, Seed and Manure Agent, GLEN COTTAGE, AND CLARENCE WHARF, EAST-THE-WATER, AND THE CORN MARKET, BIDEFORD." [Bideford Weekly Gazette, 29 Mar 1904, p1 c2]

The Bideford Gazette for 14 June 1904 [p1 c3] carried an advert for “Manure Salt” for sale at “Fulford's Stores, Clarence Wharf, Bideford.”

1911 Census has him as John Underhill Fulford as Corn Seed and Manure Merchant and lists his son Herbert William Underhill, aged 25, as "Partner in the above", another son Wilfred John Fulford, aged 20, was "Managing My Farm" and Percy Hws Fulford, aged 18, as "Clerk in My Office"

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a corn, seed, wool & manure merchants, with 'office & stores, Queen's wharf, East-the-Water; Torrington, Barnstaple & Exeter markets attended. Tel. 41'.

Fulford was Mayor of Bideford in 1910 & 1920.

John Underhill Fulford died on 8 Jan 1940, at which time he was of "The Salterns"

On his grave is the epitaph "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith". Wilfred John Fulford died in 1957 and shares his father's plot.

Devon Records Office holds "farm and household accounts, diaries and papers and wartime ephemera, family corresp, papers re Bideford Borough Council and mayoralty, court circuit papers, local maps and Liberal Party papers." deposited by "Fulford family of Bideford" and covering the period 1913-2003 (ref. 2006 Acc 30)

Betsey: Registered Port: Bideford, Devon; Tonnage: 36; Master(s): Gregory; Owner(s): Fulford.

Fulford, Trump's & Co. 1936-1970

A short biography of Thomas Percy Fulford, son of John Underhill Fulford, mentions "In 1936 along with Herbert Fulford, John Fulford, George Fulford and John Trump Dunn he helped form Fulford, Trumps and Co. Ltd with the amalgamation of J. O. Fulford and Sons, Fulfords (Bude) Ltd., Troods Ltd., George U Fulford Ltd., W. Bate and Sons Ltd, and Trumps Ltd.. The company offered a broad base of agricultural products including implements, animal feedstuffs and building materials."1

On 18th April 1936 the company was formed and on the 1 May following aquired the whole of the issued share capital of “W. Bate and Son, Ltd., of Launceston, Fukfords (Bude) Ltd., George W. Fulford Ltd., of Okehampton and Tavistock, J. U. Fulford and Sons, Ltd., of Bideford, Troods, Ltd., of Launceston, and Trump's, Ltd, of Barnstaple and Exeter.” On 1 June 1836 the company acquired, at par, all of the issued share capital of “Sargent & Co. Ltd., of Horabridge.” [“Fulford, Trump's and Co. Ltd.” North Devon Journal 21 December 1937 p7 c6] The company ran all these businesses as wholly owned subsidiaries.

Mr George U. Fulford, of Okehampton, appointed managing director of the Company from 1 Jul 1937. [“Fulford, Trump's and Co. Ltd.” North Devon Journal 21 December 1937 p7 c6]

The Fulford's business, with its Bideford roots, made Fulford a wealthy and prominent citizen. He moved to Launceston, where he would become Mayor [did the other members of the family maintain their interests in Bideford?]. In 1948 he bought the 1,530 acre Badentoy (Mearns) estate in Scotland to try to improve potato production through the use of blight resistant Scottish seed.2

By 15 December 1949 Fulford, Trump's & Co. Ltd. had added another six subsidiaries to its portfolio:

[“Fulford, Trump's & Co. Ltd.” North Devon Journal 15 December 1949 p2 c5-6]

In 1953, Major Ascott's notes [Ascott, Random Notes on Old Bideford and District. Bideford: Gazette, 1953, advertisements on the back pages] carried the following advertisement
'NINE HUNDRED YEARS AGO, it is recorded, wool was used as a foundation for Bideford Bridge . . .
TO-DAY, our associated companies collect one-sixth of the wool “ clip “ of the British Wool Marketing Board
. . .
J. U. FULFORD & SONS LIMITED
BARNSTAPLE STREET, BIDEFORD

In 1956 John Underhill Fulford purchased the Manor of Boscastle, leaving the harbour and coast to the National Trust.3

In 1968, an article discussing tractors stated "This company [Fulford, Trump & Co. of Bideford] is now a member of the Rank Hovis McDougall group. It runs ten rigid Seddons of 16-ton gross rating."4

The London Gazette of 28 Jul 1970 carried the news of the liquidation of Fulford Trump & Co.

Gabriel, James Edward & Son, of Clarence Wharf, monumental mason, 1890 till 1919-?

James Edward was the son of Richard Gabriel, a miller, and was born in Bideford. Aged 17 he is shown on the 1871 Census as a mason, living with his family in 3 Higher Meddon Street, Bideford

Catalogue of North Devon Records Office mentions that the papers of the Gabriel Family of East-the-Water (1867-1922, Ref. B93) include the 'business papers of J.E. Gabriel, monumental mason of Clarence Wharf, East-the-Water .'

On 29 Jul 1890 The Bideford Weekly Gazette carried a notice [p4 c6] "J. E. Gabriel, (Manager of the late Mr. F. Squire's Monumental Mason's Business, East-the-Water, Bideford), Begs to announce that he has commenced Business at Clarence Wharf, East-the-Water, Bideford. Private Residence: Barnstaple Street. All work at most Moderate Charges. Best Workmanship."

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as ' Gabriel James Edward, monumental carver in marble & stone, East-the-Water'

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Gabriel James Edward, monumental carver in marble & stone, Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

A letter from Bideford and District Starr-Bowkett Building Society to J.E. Gabriel re fire insurance may give further details of the premesis insured in 1909 (NDRO ref. B93/1)

“On view at JE Gabriel & Son, Monumental Works, East the Water is a handsome marble monument
to be erected in memory of the 21 men drowned when SS Thistlemoor was lost in Bideford Bay on
December 3rd 1909” [Mike Davy. “One Hundered Years Ago” Bideford Buzz, Nov 2010, pg 14] The same incident resulted in the building of a coastguard lookout on Kipling Tors in Westward Ho!

An 1918 Letter re stone supply from the Ham Hill and Doulting Stone Co. Ltd., Norton-Sub-Hamdon, Somerset (NDRO ref. B93/2) may indicate where some of his stone was being shipped from (probably coming from Bridgewater, the nearest port to their quarries).

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as monumental masons, based at 15 Barnstaple Street

The North Devon Records Office also contains a letter written by a child named Ruth Gabriel who lived at 16 Barnstaple Street, East -the-Water in 1922 (ref B93/19-23)

An unused invoice gives the company name as J.E. Gabriel and Son, Barnstaple Street Monumental Works, East Bideford (NDRO ref. B93/7-8 ).

NDRO also holds the private papers of G Gabriel of Bideford (a handwritten copy book), some of which may be relevant (NDRO B93/18)

Probate for James Edward Gabriel granted "GABRIEL James Edward of 15 Barnstaple-street Bideford Devonshire died 6 June 1932 Probate London 14 July to George Richard Gabriel stone mason and Gertrude Annie Gabriel spinster. Effects £261 4s.

Galliver, Samuel, of Barnstaple Street, blacksmith, ?-1850 till 1878-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Blacksmiths, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Black & White smiths, when address given as East the Water.

Listed as the occupant of a property lot, offered at auction in November 1867 “Lot 1.--All that desirable and very convenient Dwelling House, with the Malthouse, Courtlage, and walled Garden behind the same, situate on the East side of the River Torridge, in the Town of Bideford, formerly in the possession of Mr. Henry Tucker, Shipbuilder, but now in the respective occupations of Mr. Samuel Galliver and Mr. Philip Colwill.” The house is described as “substantial and in good Tenatable repair, and comprising 2 Front Parlours, 2 Kitchens, Wash-house, and other suitable Offices, on the ground floor; and 4 excellent Bed Rooms and Water Closet, on the first floor.” “The Garden is very productive and well stocked with Fruit Trees, and contains (by admeasurement) 112 feet in length, and 37 feet in breadth.” “The Premises are well supplied with Hard and Soft Water, and there is a side entrance passage 4 feet in width, leading from the Street, to the Malthouse and Garden behind.” [“Bideford, Devon” North Devon Journal 28 November 1867 p1 c1]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a blacksmith. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Gas Works, c1834 till 1853-?

'Gas Works, erected about 16 years ago[c 1834], at the cost of £2800, raised in £10 shares.' (Whites Directory for 1850, Pg 758).

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “White E. Martin, Builder & manager of the gas works, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Miscellaneous, when address given as East the Water. At that time the manager was listed as Edward Martin White.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory, when address given as East the Water. At that time the secretary was given as James Joce.

Geaton, John, location unknown, boot & shoemaker & shopkeeper, ?-1844 till 1852?

Search for him on the 1841 Census returned no results

1844 Pigots Directory has him in Bridge Street, Bideford

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under both Boot & Shoe Makers and Shopkeepers, when address given as East the Water.

Death registered in Bideford for a John Geaton in 1852.

Gibbens ,William, of Torrington Lane, marine store dealer, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a marine store dealer. Address given as Torrington Lane.

Giddie's Tanton's Hotel, of New Street, excursion operator ?-1893-?

The Hotel is on the west of the rivel, but in 1893 it organised daily “Cheap Excursion” by four-horse Coach and Car-a-bancs, from the Railway Station. Leaving the station at 10:25, and Tanton's Hotel five minutes later, it called at the Royal Hotel, Westward Ho! at 11, and thence via Abbotsham and Kenwith Castle to Clovelly, returning at 5, to give plenty of time to see Bideford before catching the 7.52 train. All of which cost just five shillings (return) [Bideford Weekly Gazette 29 August 1893 p4 c6]

Glover, William Henry, of Torrington Street, butcher, ?-1878-1902-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a butcher, in East-the-Water.

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Glover William Henry, butcher, Torrington street, East-the-Water

W. and H. M. Goulding & Son., of Dublin & Cork, manure merchants, ?-1884-?

Charged with “causing a nuisance by depositing a quantity of manure on Clarence Wharf.” On 15 Feb 1884 a quantity of manure was taken into a store on the wharf, at which time a most offensive smell was noted and the inspector of nuisances was instructed to serve a notice on “Mr. T. Trewin, the agent,” to remove the manure, which they had failed to do. [“Bideford Borough Magistrates” Bideford Weekly Gazette 29 April 1884 p5 c2]

In 1904 same company was apparently using J. U. Fulford as their agent for “Goulding's Potassic Superphosphates, for killing moss and improving pasture” [Bideford Weekly Gazette, 29 Mar 1904, p1 c2]

Grant, William Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, blacksmith, ?-1893 till 1919-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a Grant William T., a blacksmith, in East-the-Water

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Grant William Thomas, blacksmith, Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a blacksmith, based in Barnstaple Street.

Griffey, Thomas, location unknown, block maker, ?-1850-?

1841 Census has Thomas Griffey at Bull Hill, Bideford (west of the river), aged approx 25, a shipwright, born in county. There is another west of the river, but he is a tailor.

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Block Makers, when address given as East the Water.

Only able to find a tailor of this name on the 1851 census.

Blockmakers would be of prime importance when a ship was being rigged, so one can imagine that they would have travelled round to the yards which needed their services.

Hancock, Hugh, of East-the-Water, Baker, ?-1830 till 1839-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Bakers, as “Hancock Hugh, East the Water”

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Hancock Hugh, Baker, East the Water”

Hamling, Joseph Green, of Barnstaple Street, wool and seed merchant, ?-1902-1919-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Hamling Joseph Green, wool & seed &c. merchant, Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a seed & c. merchant, based at Torridge Wharf, East the Water.

Hammett, Charles, of Barnstaple Street, music teacher, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a teacher of music Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Hammett, Elizabeth (Mrs), of 1 Barnstaple Street, landlady, ?-1878-?

Possibly the widow of Mr William Hammett, Sailmaker (see below).

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as offering lodgings. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Hammett, William, of Torrington Street, sailmaker, c1853 till 1867

Business start date, inferred from a later reference, is c1853

1861 Census has one William Hammett, Head, Mar, 31, Sail Maker (Master, employing 2 men & 4 boys), living in Torrington Street. From attempts to align the census details it seems likely that he lived somewhere near number 45. He operated a sail-loft, which was potentially elsewhere (e.g. 1 Barnstaple Street)

“Wanted Immediately, two Apprentices to the Sailmaking. Apply for particulars, To Mr. Hammett, East-the-Water.” [Bideford Weekly Gazette. 9 May 1865 p4 c1]

Notice of the death, on 27 May, at East-the-Water, Bideford, of Mr. Wm. Hammett, sailmaker, aged 37. [Western Times. 31 May 1867 p5 c3]

“Capt. Hammett, sail-maker, East-the-Water, was found dead in his bed on Sunday morning. He appeared in good health on the previous day.” [“Bideford” Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 05 November 1869 p7 c5]

“His executors posted the following notice “To be disposed of immediately, the business carried on at Bideford during the last 14 years by the late Mr. Wm. Hammett. For particulars enquire of Mrs. Hammett, East-the-Water, Bideford.” [“To Sail-makers and Others” Bideford Weekly Gazette. 16 July 1867 p1 c7]

Hazel, Henry, location unknown, woolstapler or fellmonger, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Woolstaplers and Fellmongers as “Hazel Henry, East the Water”

Heal, Mary (Mrs), of Barnstaple Street, then Railway Terrace, greengrocer, ?-1902 till 1919-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Heale Mary (Mrs.).grngrcr. Barnstaple st. East-the-Water

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a greengrocer, based at 5 Railway Terrace, East-the-Water.

Hearn, Richard, Canada Cottages, house decorator & insurance agent, ?-1891 till 1893-?

The 1891 Census lists 3 families at 1-3 Canada Cottages, sandwiched between entries for 2 Barnstaple Street and 3 Barnstaple Street. It has Richard Hearn, aged 24, a House Decorator, born in Torrington, living with his wife Lizzie at 2 Canada Cottages.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as an insurance agent, in East-the-Water

Heard Brothers, of Colonial Buildings, merchants, 1858 till 1862-?

"RICHARD HEARD begs to acknowledge with gratitude the liberal patronage which for many years he has received from the Public, and in retiring from his present Business he solicits on behalf of his Sons, William & George Heard, (who will henceforth conduct the business,) a continuance of public favours.
I am, your obedient servant,
RICHARD HEARD.
Colonial Buildings, Bideford, April 26
th, 1858."

[Bideford Weekly Gazette 04 May 1858 p1 c3]

Followed directly underneath by -

'WILLIAM & GEORGE HEARD respectfully announce that having succeeded their Father in the Business lately carried on by him, they have entered into partnership under the style and firm of "Heard, Brothers," and while asking for a share of public confidence and favours, they pledge themselves to use all laudable means to secure its continuance.
We are, your obedient Servants,
HEARD, BROTHERS.
Colonial Buildings, Bideford, April 26
th, 1858.'

[Bideford Weekly Gazette 04 May 1858 p1 c3]

Immediately followed by -

"The Subscribers having been this day empowered to receive all debts and settle all accounts due to Richard Heard, of Bideford, Merchant, hereby notify, all persons so indebted to make immediate payment, and all persons having claims against the said estate, to present them for settlement.
HEARD, BROTHERS.
Colonial Building, April 22nd, 1858."
[Bideford Weekly Gazette 04 May 1858 p1 c3]


"HEARD, BROTHERS, Announce the Arrival of one of their Vessels with Best AMERICAN BLACK SEED OATS (similar to those sold by them to Mr. James Bowden for the past two years), which have been so highly approved by all who purchased of him. Agriculturalists and others who may be anxious to change their seed will do well to secure some of these Oats as they have been found to be the very best change seed introduced into this country, in every respect.—For sample and price, apple early, Colonial Buildings, Bideford ; and Bridge Wharf; Barnstaple.
"Also, a few Bags of selected AMERICAN SEED POTATOES.
"Bideford, 17th Jan., 1860." [Bideford Weekly
Gazette 20 March 1860 p1 c1] Similar advertisements for these oats appeared in 1861 and 1862.

"FRESH ARRIVAL OF AMERICAN BLACK SEED OATS AND POTATOES, HEARD, BROTHERS, Announce the arrival, of one of their Ships the Dashaway, with a carefully selected Cargo of BLACK SEED OATS and POTATOES, which have been purchased with very great care as to quality and condition.
"Also, a few Casks of LABRADOR HERRINGS, and AMERICAN BUTTER.
"For Sale, at Colonial Buildings, Bideford, and Bridge Wharf, Barnstaple.
Dated January 16
th, 1861." [North Devon Journal 07 February 1861 p1 c6]

This cargo is likely to have been aboard the Dashaway that arrived at Gravesend, from New York, on 10 Dec 1860 [Morning Chronicle 11 December 1860 p8 c5], possibly having called at Bideford en-route.


"American Black Seed Oats. MESSERS. HEARD, BROTHERS, Beg to call the attention of Agriculturists and others to their present stock of American Black Seed Oats, which have been selected with great care, and imported by them direct, in first rate condition, superior in quality to those of former years, and warranted sound. A large proportion of the principal farmers have availed themselves of this excellent change, and can bear testimony to the benefit they have derived thereby. The first change is most beneficial and most productive. Delivered at Colonial Buildings, Bideford, and Bridge Wharf, Barnstaple." [Bideford Weekly Gazette 25 February 1862 p1 c6]

"RED POTATOES.
Messrs. HEARD, BROTHERS, have for Sale, a quantity of
superior quality American rough red potatoes for present use, and well calculated for change seed. The quality and flavour are first-rate; also a few bags of inferior potatoes for feeding purposes.
Colonial Buildings, Feb. 10, 1862."
[Bideford Weekly Gazette 25 February 1862 p1 c1]

Heard, George, of Colonial House and 1 Spring Gardens, merchant, ?- 1857 till 1875-?

Later in life he moved to Swansea, whist retaining property in Bideford, which he leased out.

On the 5 Feb 1857 North Devon Journal [p1 c4] carried the following advertisement: “To Journeyman Saddlers and Harness Makers. An opportunity is now offered for a Young Man of Sober, Steady, and Industrious habits, to obtain a Situation as Conducting FOREMAN in an Old-Established Business House, in Charlotte Town, Prince Edward's Island.
“The advertiser is prepared to give every information in his power to any COMPETENT young man, by letter or personally, (the latter mode would be preferred,) but the applicant must be a first-rate workman in every department of the Business and produce satisfactory testimonials from former masters.
“Liberal Wages will be given and their passage out paid, if required.
“For particulars &c., apply to Mr. George Heard. Colonial Buildings, Bideford, 2nd February, 1857.”

In 27 Feb 1858, the Western Times [p5 c1] carried the marriage announcement “On Thursday, at Newton Tracey, Mr. George Heard, merchant of Bideford, to Eliza, only daughter of – King, Esq., of Newton Tracey.

On 26th April 1858 Richard Heard retired, leaving his business to be taken over by his sons William & George Heard, thereafter trading as Heard Brothers. [Bideford Weekly Gazette. 4 May 1858 p1 c3]

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 2 Oct 1860 [p4 c6] carried the following birth notification “27 ult, at Springfield Terrace in this town, the wife of Mr. George Hear, merchant, of a son.”

The 1861 Census lists him at 1 Spring Gardens, as George Heard, aged 40, Merchant (Lumber & General) born Bideford. With his wife Elizabeth, two young sons, George H, and Robert S, Brother in Law and two servants.

"The Mayor, to start the subject, mentioned that Mr. Heard was building a quay at East-the-Water, which would project into the river.
Alderman White: Well, he is going to put up a crane.
Mr. Chanter thought the new quay would be a great benefit if the others would do the same ; but if they did not it would be a serious injury.
The Mayor: Has any party a right to encroach upon a public highway without permission of the Board?
On suggestion by some members, the surveyor embodied in his report that Messrs. Hear brothers were building a quay about thirty feet into the river.
Mr. Chanter stated that Mr. Heard had bought the foreshore from the Woods and Forests Commissioners, and had obtained permission from the Admiralty to enclose it. The question was whether the board have any and what powers to prevent it. The higher authorities said they had not, but he believed they could not go one foot into the river without the Board's consent." . . . etc.
The overall conclusion was that the Board should oppose the quay, as detrimental to East-the-Water.

[Bideford Weekly Gazette 02 June 1863 p4 c2-3]

"With reference to the highway at the beach, East-the-Water, Mr. Bush reported that a great deal had been done by Mr. Heard, and that no doubt it would soon be satisfactorily completed."

. . . "The subject of the drain at Mr Johnson's yard was discussed, their being doubt as to whether the Board had not, by causing the sewage from Springfield Terrace to pass through it, appropriated it as a public sewer.
It was said that Mr. Heard had formerly claimed it as a private drain.
Alderman Bush had no doubt the drain was constructed when Colonial Buildings was a workhouse. The matter was referred back to the drainage committee." ["Local Board" Bideford Weekly
Gazette 06 June 1865 p4 c2]

On 15 Feb 1866 the Western Daily Press [“Local Bankrupts” p4 c3] carried details of local bankrupts from that weeks Gazette. They included one George Heard, Bideford, merchant, declared bankrupt Feb 28 at Exeter.

On 09 Aug 1866 the North Devon Journal [“Court of Bankruptcy, Exeter” p3 c3] were told that the bankrupt, Mr George Heard, of Bideford, shipowner, had an interest in his marriage settlement to the tune of about £360. Mr. Heard's advocate applied for the Commissioner to annul the bankruptcy, which, with the agreement of all his creditors, was done.

In April 1867 George Heard sold the 67 year residue of a lease (commencing 28 March 1847) on a timber yard on New Road (with a river frontage of 666 feet and a breadth of about 98 feet, there were also a 148 by 24 foot saw-pit, warehouses, offices, a coal shed and a lath store.

In August 1867, giving evidence to a trial, John Ching explained “I am a clerk to Mr. George Heard. We have an office East-the-Water, at the end of the bridge with a window facing the street.” [“Charge of Robbing from an Employer” North Devon Journal 22 August 1867 p8 c1-2]

We were under the impression when we stated last week that Messers. Heard and Pain’s Committee-room was at the Newfoundland Hotel. We are request'd to state that the Committee meetings were held at Mr. Heard's Office, Colonial Buildings. [“Messrs. Heard and Pain's Committee” Bideford Weekly Gazette 09 November 1869 p4 c3] This was in connection with an election, where Heard was elected, but the campaign took an interesting turn, see Bideford Weekly Gazette 02 November 1869 p4 c3 for details.

At a committal hearing “Mr. George Heard, timber merchant, of Colonial Buildings, Bideford, was summoned for that he did, on the 26th of January, at the parish of Newton Tracey, feloniously cause to be received by one Thomas Effingham Howard Hogg Dimond-Hogg (knowing the contents thereof) a certain letter or writing demanding of the said Capt. Hogg with menaces and without any reasonable or probable cause money and a certain other valuable thing.” The court were of the opinion that Mr Heard was guilty and he was committed for trial in Exeter.[“Serious Charge Against a Merchant of Bideford” North Devon Journal 02 March 1871 p8 c1-2]

“The fact of the Grand Jury having thrown out the bill in the case of Mr. George heard, was telegraphed to Bideford and was the cause of great rejoicing. The bells were set ringing and a large number of the tradesmen of the town assembled at the railway station to give him a hearty welcome back. Mr. Heard's expenses incurred by the action will be defrayed by public subscription.” [“The Welcoming Back of Mr. George Heard.” North Devon Journal 16 March 1871 p6 c2]

In March 1874 “Mr George Heard, of Bideford, Timber Merchant” was involved in a court case. He had been providing bath stone, from Randal and Sanders, for a builder called John Tremear, who had gone bankrupt. Heard's men were hauling trucks of the rough-cut stone to Queen's Wharf, where a stonecutter named Samuel Gooding was finishing it to the sizes specified by Tremear, ready for use on a mansion-house in Ilfracombe. [“County Court of Devonshire” North Devon Journal 19 March 1874 p3 c3]

The North Devon Journal or 06 August 1874 [p 1 c6] carried the official notification that George Heard, Merchant, now residing in East-the-Water, intended to apply to the General Annual Licensing Meeting for a licence to cover the Colonial Buildings.

The North Devon Journal of 25 Mar 1875 [p1 c2] carried an advertisement by “Mr. George Heard, Colonial Buildings, Bideford” for a new five-bedroom property to let, with a good view of the river. This was possibly his house in Springfield Terrace.

The Western Times of 16 Apr 1875 [p8 c5] carries a late advertisement:
“BIDEFORD—DEVON. TO BUILDERS, CONTRACTORS, SHIPOWNERS AND OTHERS. IMPORTANT SALE. Mr. H. LEE HUTCHINGS has received instructions from Mr. George Heard, Merchant (who is leaving Bideford), to SELL by Auction on TEUSDAY and WEDNESDAY, 20
th and 21st APRIL, 1875, at the TIMBER YARD, East-the-Water, near the Railway Station, and adjoining the river; commencing each day at one o'clock precisely; a rack saw bench and fittings complete, capable of taking 25ft. and upwards in length : two 4ft. circular saws, Fairbank's weigh bridge, to weigh 3 tons (quite new); 100,000 feet of 6 and 7 inch prepared flooring board, 50,000 feet of well seasoned board, in yellow pine and Swedish red, from ½ to 2 inches in thickness; a quantity of 3-inch red deals, a few pieces of Red Swedish timber, a considerable quantity of teak board, plank and edging, a large quantity of 2-feet, 3-feet, and 4-feet laths; new and second-hand rope, marline, houseline, and spanyard, ship's warps, hawsers, 4 ships' sails (nearly new), tarpaulining, ship's steering wheel and spindle, ships blocks, six-oared gig, longboat, timber boat, new and second-hand ship's water casks, harness casks, steamer and broilers for boats' timbers. a quantity of British plate and sheet glass, a quantity of ironmongery of various sorts, suitable for builders, bell-hangers, &c.; about 150 5 bushel sacks, coal scoop, beam and scales, several work benches, moulding and other planes, turning lathe, 4-wheeled phæton (by Gibbings), with two pair shafts for horse or pony ; 2-wheel gig, side saddle, 2 butts and wh1875eels, 1 long cart and wheels, cover for miller's cart, capital winnowing machine (by Fry, Bristol); cumber frame, with two lights; patent knife cleaner, two powerful cart horses, and a considerable quantity of miscellaneous useful articles too numerous to describe.
“Purchases made at this sale to the extent of £25 and upwards, payments can, if desired, be made by three months' approved acceptances.
“N.B.--The above sale offers a rare opportunity as the flooring and other board has been seasoning for years.
“Dated Bideford, April 2
nd, 1875”

It appears that Heard moved to Swansea, whilst retaining property interests in Bideford.

The North Devon Journal of 13 November 1879 [“Bideford” p8 c1] carried the account of the death, in Chatham, Miramachini, New Brunswick, of Willie K. Heard, the 16 year old son of “our respected townsman, Mr. George Heard, timber merchant of the South Dock and Walter-road, Swansea”

In November 1880 the Local Board directed that “Mr. Heard should be summoned for non-payment of his local rates in respect of Clarence Wharf.” [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 25 November 1880 p8 c1]

Shown on a plan accompanying a sale agreement of 1886 as the owner of land immediately north of Restarick's shipyard

The North Devon Journal of 20 January 1887 [p7 c1-2] carried the account of a trial in which “Mr. George Heard, a merchant, who formerly resided at Bideford,” claimed damages from “Mr. Tucker, a corn merchant, living at High Bickington, and having corn stores at Queen's Wharf, East-the-Water” (which were leased from Heard), for the cost of repairing the floor, which had collapse under the weight of the grain. Mr Heard “proceeded to say that about twenty years ago he built the wharf, and all the stores thereon. The loft in question was 60 feet by 19 feet, and the supporting joists of the floor were 12 inches by 3½ inches. An iron rod also ran the whole length under the floor, which vastly added to its stability.” “He (Mr. Heard) was in Bideford early in the year of 1882, and he then saw oats stored in the loft to the depth of 6 feet and men engaged in taking in more, and, instead of cutting the string at the mouth, they were simply emptying the sack by throwing the sacks heavily to the floor.” A claim disputed by Tucker. Heard went on to say “The floor to another store having previously been broken in the same way, he warned Mr. Tucker to be careful, but very little notice was taken of what was said. It was only a little while after that the whole floor fell through, and it cost £62 to put it right again.” The argument centred on whether the defendant had stored more than the 101 tons allowed for in his tenancy agreement. It was noted that “the average quantity of corn kept in the store was from 3,400 bushels to 3, 500. This amount would weigh some 62 tons odd.” Tucker claimed that “he once had a cargo of 100 tons, and it filled both lofts” (rather than just the one that collapsed). The surveyor testified that he felt the floor incapable of holding more than about 60 tons. The jury found for the defendant.

1891 Census has him and his wife at Royal Hotel, as George Heard, aged 70, Retired Timber Importer, born in Devon, and Elizabeth J Heard, aged 56, also born in Bideford. Also listed is his son Stanley Heard, aged 30, Hotel Proprietor and Timber Importer, and Stanley's brother Hugh Percy Heard, aged 25, Artist, with their sister Mildred E Heard, aged 21, all born in Bideford.

Heard, Hugh Percy, of the Royal Hotel, artist, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Heard H. Percy, artist. Royal hotel

Heard, H. Stanley, hotel proprietor and timber importer (see Royal Hotel)

Son of George Heard, with whom he undertook the project that resulted in the Royal Hotel, which opened on 9 Jan 1889. [“The Royal Hotel” North Devon Journal 10 January 1889 p2 c4]

1891 Census has him at Royal Hotel, as Stanley Heard, aged 30, Hotel Proprieter and Timber Importer, with George Heard, aged 70, Retired Timber Importer, born in Devon, and his brother Hugh Percy Heard, aged 25, Artist, with their sister Mildred E Heard, aged 21, all born in Bideford.

On 12 Feb 1925 the North Devon Journal [p8 c7] carried the following death notice “HEARD.-- In London, Robt. Stanley, second son of the late Mr. George Heard, timber merchant, Bideford, aged 64. [the age is right so the H. in the census might be a transcription error – need to check]

See also the entry for the Royal Hotel

Heard, Richard, Colonial Buildings, merchant, ?-1840 till 1858

The Colonial Herald for Sat., 10 Oct., 1840 [Prince Edward Island], carried the following shipping report “The Minerva, Heard, 41 days from Bideford, arrived at Murray Harbour on the 3rd inst.” [Christine Gorman, Gary Carroll and Fran Macphail. “Shipping Notes from the 1800's – P.E.I.” http://www.islandregister.com/shippingnotes.html. Accessed 9 Aug. 2016]

The Exeter Flying Post of 27 May 1841 [“Bideford.” p3 c4] carried a brief note that 'The barque “Minerva,” belonging to Mr. R. Heard, merchant of this port, is about shortly to sail to America.'

The Islander of June 2, 1843 [Prince Edward Island], carried the following announcement of a launch: “Launched on Thursday, June 1, from the shipyard of Mr. Thomas Richards, Vernon River, a superior brig of 210 tons, called the Lady Sale, built for Mr. William Heard, merchant of this town. She reflects great credit on the Master Builder Mr. Thomas Evans of Appledore, England.” [Gorman, Carroll and Macphail, 2016, ibid] This William Heard is possibly Richard's son, acting as his agent in Prince Edward Island.

The Islander of Nov 17, 1843 [Prince Edward Island], carried the following notice: “Death of Robert Heard, son of Richard Heard of Bideford, owner of the Lady Sale, swept overboard in a gale.” [Gorman, Carroll and Macphail, 2016, ibid]

The Morning News of 23 April, 1845 [Prince Edward Island], carried the following advertisement “FOR QUEBEC. The barque CIVILITY will call at Charlottetown for PASSENGERS, on her way to Quebec, about the middle of May, next. For freight or passage, apply to WILLIAM HEARD. April 15th.” [Gorman, Carroll and Macphail, 2016, ibid]

The Islander of Sept. 15, 1848 [Prince Edward Island], reported the following launch: “On Sept, 14, at Vernon River, a barque of 600 tons register, Devonia owned by Mr W. Heard, merchant of Charlottetown.” [Gorman, Carroll and Macphail, 2016, ibid]

The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 07 April 1849 [“Emigration.” p1 c3] carried the following advertisement “BRISTOL To NEW YORK, ( to follow the “Java.”) The Splendid new fast-sailing Barque “Devonia,” A 1, 900 Tons burthen, Richard Heard, jun., Commander, to sail from Bristol on 25th of APRIL. This ship's 'tween decks are admirably adapted for passengers, being SEVEN FEET IN HEIGHT, and will be fitted up with every convenience calculated to promote the health and comfort of Emigrants. She has also a spacious Cabin where several families can be accommodated. Parties about to emigrate will do well to secure berths immediately. No Charge for Passenger's Luggage. For further information, apply at MARK WHITWELL, Licensed Passenger Broker, Middle Avenue, Queen-square. Bristol, 5th April, 1849.”

Richard Heard was involved in a lucrative business ferrying emigrants to North America on the outward voyage, and returning with timber. Alongside Yeo and Tucker, he was one of the chief participants in it. As such, he had a small fleet of ships operating from both Bideford and Bristol.

“Emigration.-- The extent of emigration from this town and neighbourhood will scarcely be credited. Upwards of fifty are on the point of leaving Bideford alone ; and in almost every parish of the union, able-bodied men and women, who have been compelled to apply for partial relief, are “picking up their alls” and preparing to begin life de novo in another clime. We understand that all the berths of Mr. Heard's fine barque “Secret” have been taken, and that she will set sail in a few days. Both the “Secret” and the “Civility” and [sic] now lying at the Quay. The repairs and alterations of the latter vessel are nearly completed, and there is consequently no doubt but that she will be ready at the appointed time of sailing.”

It will be satisfactory to many persons in this neighbourhood, who have friends on board, to be informed that the barque 'Devonia,' Richard Heard, jun., commander, being the last of the regular line of emigrant ships owned by Mr. Richard Heard, of this town, arrived safely at New York on the 26th June, after encountering a very rough and stormy passage. The passengers and ship were immediately on their arrival examined by the Quarantine and Custom House officers, who declared the “passengers to be most healthy, and the 'Devonia' the cleanest and best ship, out of the 223 which had arrived at New York with passengers during the present year.” The whole of the passengers were so well pleased with the captain, and his conduct toward them, that immediately on their arrival they presented him with a silver teapot, as a testimonial of his unwearied exertions to promote their comfort, and his uniform kindness to all on board during the voyage. Numerous letters have been received from those who emigrated in the above ship by their friends in this country, in which they express themselves in the highest terms of the captain as well as the ship. These facts, and especially the honourable testimony of the officers at New York, will doubtless have their effect in inducing intended emigrants to secure berths on board the 'Devonia' at her next trip. It will be remembered that we inserted a few weeks ago scarcely less honourable certificates with reference to the ships 'Civility' and 'Secret,' and their respective commanders. Those vessels are advertised to sail next month. The passage money is moderate, and the accommodation first-rate.” [“Bideford.” North Devon Journal 19 July 1849, p8 c1]

The barque 'Five Sisters' belonging to Captn. Wm. Yeo, of this port, arrived over the bar from Quebec, on Thursday last, followed on the next evening (Friday) by the 'Secret,' belonging to Mr. Richard Heard. Each vessel had a very fine passage, and arrived with all hands well. The last-named vessel, 'Secret,' is advertised to sail again from this port with emigrants early next month.” [“Bideford.” North Devon Journal 26 July 1849, p8 c1]

On 30 October 1851 the North Devon Journal [“Emigration” p5 c3] carried a piece announcin gthe arrival in Quebec of 'Secret' and extolling the virtues of Heard's line. It concludes by saying “We understand that Mr. Richard Heard, the owner, intends to place two additional new ships in the berth in Bideford next spring, so as to afford ample accommodation to all who are about to emigrate.”

Several references to William Heard of Charllotetown probably refer to Richard Heard's son, as Electric was a name used in Heard's fleet. These include:

The Examiner of June 13, 1851 [Prince Edward Island], reported “Launched on the ----of May last, at Pownal, Lot 49, a superior built Bark of 369 tons Register, called the Electric, built by Messrs. G and P. Bollum, for Mr. Wm. Heard, Merchant of Charlottetown.” [Gorman, Carroll and Macphail, 2016, ibid]

The Royal Gazette of August 27, 1852 [Prince Edward Island], reported the launch “from the shipyard of Mr. W. Heard, in Charlottetown, Sept.. 14, a polacea (?) Schooner, 80 tons, Nugget.[Gorman, Carroll and Macphail, 2016, ibid]

The Islander Fri., 10 Sep., 1852 [Prince Edward Island], “From the shipyard of Mr. W. Heard, Charlottetown, August 31, a Bark of 291 tons, Electric.[Gorman, Carroll and Macphail, 2016, ibid]

Royal Gazette, December 19, 1853 [Prince Edward Island]: “Launched at Charlottetown, Dec. 16, from the shipyard of Mr. W. Heard, a three-masted schooner of about 180 tons, the Choice.” [Gorman, Carroll and Macphail, 2016, ibid]

In 1853, an advertisement for the sailing of the 600 ton “Electric” mentions “The Provisions will be supplied to each adult as follows:-- Daily, three quarts of good water; Weekly, 3 ½ lbs. bread or biscuit, 3 ½ lbs. wheaten flour; 2 lbs. rice; ¾ lb. sugar; 2 oz. tea; 2 oz. of salt.” also that “To secure punctuality in Sailing, a very powerful Tug is engaged to tow the Vessel to Sea, (if required,) at the time advertised.” [“Emigration to Quebec, New York, and Canada.” North Devon Journal. 17 February 1853 p1 c4]

The North Devon Journal of 09 June 1853 [“Summer Voyage” p1 c5] carried and advertisement for Heard's vessels, as follows: “To New York, Quebec, and Canada, by the favourite Clipper-built, Fast-sailing A 1, British Ships, which are appointed to Sail with a limited number of Passengers in each Vessel, as Follows:--

Ships' names.
Barque.

Burthen.

Master.

To Sail
from.

When.

Destination.

Worthy of Devon

600

Robt. Wilkinson

Bristol

June 1

New York

Secret…….

600

John Bale

Gloucester

June 20

New York

Electric…...

500

John Molton

Bideford

Aug. 1

Quebec

A New Vessel..

300

Richard Bale

Bideford

Sept. 1

P. E. Island

The above Vessels are well known, their respective Masters are acknowledged to be very kind and obliging to the Passengers, and, during a period of sixteen years, no Vessel belonging to this line, has been disabled, obliged to put back, or visited with any epidemic, which is mainly attributed to the great care always taken by the Owner, not to crowd any of his Vessels, and in procuring the best Provisions and Water for their use.
“The above presents a most desirable opportunity to all who desire a comfortable Summer Passage. For particulars, apply to Mr. R. Heard,
Bideford, Devon; or, to Messrs. Mark Whitwell and Co., Queen Square, Bristol.”

The following advertisement identifies two more of Richard Heard's ships, and illustrates the sort of timber he was importing
"GREAT REDUCTION IN THE PRICE OF TIMBER, AND OTHER SORTS OF WOOD GOODS. RICHARD HEARD begs to announce the arrival of his two Ships; the 'Inspector,' direct from Quebec ; and the 'Westward Ho,' direct from Miramichi ; with two very superior and carefully selected CARGOES of Red and Yellow Pine, Oak Logs, Rock Elm, Walnut, Bird's-eye Maple, Birch Logs, Deals, Lathwood, Masts, Spars, &c., &c. being the Fifth and Sixth Cargoes imported by him direct in the year, now Landed, and which is the Largest and best selected Stock in the North of Devon, and now ready for Sale at his WHARF, BIDEFORD."
There follows a detailed price list, then:
"Any quantity delivered at Barnstaple, or any Station on the Line, or elsewhere, as may be agreed for.
"Dated, 7
th January, 1858 RICHARD HEARD, Shipowner, Colonial Buildings, Bideford." [Bideford Weekly Gazette 09 March 1858 p1 c3-4]. This advertisement continued to appear up till April.

Immediately underneath was: "LATHMAKERS and SAWYERS wanted.-- Wanted, immediately, TWO GOOD LATHMAKERS and ONE OR TWO GOOD PAIR OF SAWYERS, to whom constant employment will be given. -- Apply to Mr. Richard Heard, Shipowner, Bideford. Colonial Buildings, 7th January, 1858." [Bideford Weekly Gazette 09 March 1858 p1 c3-4]

On 26th April 1858 Richard Heard retired, leaving his business to be taken over by his sons William & George Heard, thereafter trading as Heard Brothers. [Bideford Weekly Gazette. 4 May 1858 p1 c3]

The 1861 Census lists Richard Heard at the Colonial Buildings, aged 70, Retired Merchant, born Bideford

Herniman & Mills, location unknown, ?-1887

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 10 Jan 1888 carried a notice, dated 20 Dec 1887, that the partnership of Herniman and Mills, which had existed “for some time,” had been dissolved and that the business would, in future, be conducted by Mr. Herniman. In the next column, R. Herniman announced that he now controlled the coach building and general smithing business conducted with his former partner, and solicited business for the new firm.

Herniman, Robert, of Bideford Carriage Works, Torridge Terrace, 1888 till 1899 (1902?)

Established in 1888 by the dissolution of the partnership of Herniman & Mills (see entry for that company)

The 1891 Census lists him at 1 Torridge Terrace, as Robert Herniman, aged 33, Coach Builder, born Crowcombe, Somerset. He is with his family and two servants. The census enumerator dealt with Railway Place, then lists a Coach Works and Steam Sawmill, before starting to list Torridge Terrace (with William Phear, the Carrier, at no 1). Following 9 Torridge Terrace is Gasworks Cottage, then Bideford Gasworks. There are then two cottages listed in Nutterberry and two in Hatchwells. Industrial Place is listed between Sunnyside and Glen Cottage, St Peters Church, then Grenville Terrace, then Grange Farm.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as 'Herniman Robert, carriage builder, East-the-Water'

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 21 Feb 1893 [p4 c3] carried a notice that “R. Herniman, Carriage Builder, East-the-Water” had for sale a “First-Class TWO-WHEELER, built by Bridgen, of Brighton; PARISIAN PHAETON, by a Torquay builder ; Also, COB-SIZE TWO WHEELER” Herniman also guaranteed that “all wood work shall be of not less than three years' drying.”

Listed under Bankrupts in the Edinburgh Gazette of 30 June 1899 (after the London Gazette) - "Robert Herniman and Frederick Cadd (trading as Herniman & Company), Bideford, Devonshire, carriage builders"

An advertisement in The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 20 Mar 1894 [p1 c6] states that his works were “Near the railway station.” also that they undertook “Repairs in every Branch. Carriages Taken in Exchange.”

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Herniman & Co. carriage builders, Bideford carriage works, East-the-Water

In 1908 Herniman's Carriage Works offered to build “to order” all classes of vehicles, including “Victoria, Wagonette, Ralli Car, Dog Carts, Governess Car, Baker's Van, Etc.” [The Bideford Weekly Gazette, 2 Jun1908, p2 c6]

Hinks, John, of Barnstaple Street, then Torrington Street, pleasure boats, ?-1878 till 1909?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as Hicks John, a shopkeeper, address given as Barnstaple Street.

North Devon Gazette of 26 May 1896 carried an advertisement announcing

East-the-Water, Bideford
For the Summer Season
J Hinks

Has a nice little Fleet of New Up-to-date PLEASURE BOATS (Sailing or Rowing). ON HIRE, suitable for Large or Small Parties. -Orders by Post promptly attended to.

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Hinks John, boat propr. Torrington st. East-the-Water

In May 1909 an auction was held at the slipway, East-the-Water, of eight sailing and rowing boats, and two canoes, together with their sails and surplus gear, all at the instruction of Mr. J. Hinks. [“Bideford” Bideford Weekly Gazette 11 May 1909 p4 c3]

Hodge, John, of Torrington Lane, grocer, ?-1850-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a grocer. Address given as Torrington Lane.

Holman, John, location uncertain, beer retailer, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Holman John, Beer retailer, East the Water”

Hookway, William, location unknown, wheelwright, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Miscellaneous as “Hookway Wm. wheelwright, East the Water”

How, A., of Barnstaple, ?-1883-?

May be a builder rather than a trader?

The Local Government Board wrote to the Local Board concerning a “new Jetty, which Mr. A. How, Barnstaple, proposed to erect at East-the-Water, and they enclosed an amended plan for the board's perusal.” [“Bideford” Western Times 03 July 1883 Exeter P6 c5]

Hopgood, John, of East-the-Water, anchor smith, ?-1830-1844

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Black and Whitesmiths, as “Hopgood John, East the Water”

Probably the same as the individual listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Taverns & Public Houses, as the proprietor of the Barnstaple Inn, East the Water, as it was not uncommon to tend a bar, as a retirement activity for those no longer able to work.

John Hopgood, anchorsmith, died in Bideford in Sept 1844 [“Deaths” North Devon Journal 05 September 1844 p3 c2]

Hutchings, Edward, journeyman, Cooper, ?-1844-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 as “Hutchings” under Coopers. Address given as East the Water.

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Hutchings Edward, Cooper, East the Water”

1841 Census lists Edward Hutchings at Providence Row, Bideford, aged abt 35, as a Cooper.

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Coopers, when address given as East the Water.

1851 Census lists Edward Hutchings at Union Street, aged 47, as a Cooper (journeyman), born in Appledore. It also lists a Philip Hutchings as Victualler and Carpenter at Public House, Gammerton, so these may be relations (victualling and carpentry being natural relations for a cooper's services).

Hutchings, Peter, location uncertain, shopkeeper, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, under shopkeepers, as “Hutchings Peter, East the Water”

Huxtable ,Alice, of Barnstaple Street, straw hat maker, ?-1844-?

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Straw-hat-makers (of which there were at that time 9 in total in Bideford), when address given as East the Water.

Huxtable ,Misses, of Barnstaple Street, straw hat makers, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Straw Hat Mkrs, when address given as East the Water.

1851 Census shows them living with their father John Huxtable in Barnstaple Street

Huxtable, Mary (Mrs), of 7 Springfield Terrace, landlady, ?-1902-1919-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Huxtable Mary (Mrs.), apartments, 7 Springfield terrace, East-the-Water

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as offering apartments, address given as 7 Springfield Terrace, East the Water.

Huxtable, John, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper & tallow chandler, ?-1850 till 1878-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under both Shopkeepers and Tallow Chandlers, when address given as East the Water.

1851 Census has the Huxtable family listed immediately before the Ship on Launch Inn, as John Huxtable, 57, Tallow Chandler, born North Molton, with: wife Alice, aged 57, Chandlers Wife, born North Molton; daughters Elizabeth (age 27) and Mary Ann (aged 25), both Straw Milliner, and born in Bideford; daughter Helen, aged 17, Quill Maker, born Bideford; son James, aged 15, Wool Comber, born Bideford.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under 'Grocers and Tea Dealers' and Tallow Chandlers, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a shopkeeper. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Huxtable & Son, of Barnstaple Street?, woolstaplers, ?-1853-?

1851 Census has James Huxtable, a Woolcomber as his son, see entry for John Huxtable

Listed as Huxtable & Son. in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Woolstapler, when address given as East the Water.

Irish, Thomas Benjamin, location unknown, manure agent, ?-1878-?

Not found in an 1871 Census search

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a manure agent. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Not found in an 1881 Census search

Jewell, John, Torrington Street, schoolmaster, ?-1824 till 1830-?

Probate was granted for one John Jewell, Schoolmaster of Bideford, possibly the current individual's ancestor, on July 31 1800 [National Archives IR 26/337/197]. That same ancestor may be the same individual mentioned on 23 July 1779, when an advertisement appeared for a print of Bideford, it read “A Perspective View of Bideford is just published by Subscription. Engraved by Ezekiel. Sold by Mr Henry Mugg, Bookseller, and the Engraver, at Mr Ezekiel's, Silversmith, Exon; also by Mr John Jewell the Author, at Bideford, by whom Youth are genteelly Boarded and instructed in all the Branches of Practical Mathematics. Price l0s 6d in Colours 12s 6d” [“Ezekiel Abraham Ezekiel” JCR-UK, Exeter Synagogue Archive. Online:http://www.jewishgen.org/jcr-uk/community/exe/ezekiel/ezekiel.htm Accessed 10 Oct 2016] This fine print, a view from East-the-Water, shows the rooftops of Barnstaple Street, but little more.

On 17 March 1787 one “John Jewell, Teacher of Mathematics, at Bideford, Devon.” appeared amongst the list of subscribers to Daniel Fenning's, The Young Algebraist's Companion: or, A New and Easy Guide to Algebra, a text written to be used in schools.

In 1824 John Jewell was mentioned in the details for an auction of property East the Water. It is possible that this was the premises that later became the blacksmith's Arms

“To Be Sold, By PUBLIC AUCTION, on Tuesday the 16th of November, 1824, (unless previously disposed of by Private Contract, of which due notice will be given,) at the New Inn, Bideford, by six o'clock in the Afternoon, the Fee Simple and Inheritance of all that desirable Messuage, Tenement, and Premises, situate East the Water, Bideford, adjoining the River Torridge and Torrington Lane-end ; comprising Two DWELLING HOUSES, MALTHOUSE, Courtlage, with a never failing Pump of excellent Water, Meadow, a large Walled Garden behind, and a small one in front of the Premises ; now in the Possession of Mr. WILLIAM PYKE, and Mr. JOHN JEWELL.
The Houses are well built, and are formed so as to be occupied either together as one large Mansion, or separately, at the will of the Purchaser ; and consist of two Parlours, a Hall, two Kitchens, Pantry, Brewhouse, two Cellars, and a Dairy, on the Ground Floor ; 4 large Bed Rooms, and tow Closets, on the first Floor, and five Bed Rooms in the Attic Story ; together with a small Courtlage adjoining the one before mentioned, and a large Linhay or Cowhouse in the same.
The Garden is well stocked with the choicest Wall Fruit Trees now in full bearing, and contains about Half an Acre.
The Meadow contains by estimation 1 Acre, 30 Poles, and is contiguous to the Dwelling Houses, and the Premises are admirably calculated for Building on.
Further Particulars may be known on application to said Mr. Pyke, or to Mr. Wilson, Printer, on the Quay. Bideford, 20th October, 1824.” [North Devon Journal 05 November 1824 p4 c4]

The will of William Pyke, Master Mariner of Bideford, signed on 13 Aug 1826 and proved on 18 July 1827, makes bequests to his children and requests that “their uncle Mr Jno Jewell shall act as trust for them during their minority.” He left his property to his wife, Mary, for the duration of her widowhood and thereafter to be divided amongst his children Grace, Ben, Mary, & John Pyke [PROB 11/1728/296, Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury]

John Jewell is listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Academies and Schools, as “Jewell John, East the Water”

Johnson, John, of Barnstaple Street, shipbuilder, mid 19th C.

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Johnson, Robert & Son, of Barnstaple Street, blockmaker and shipbuilder, early 19th C.

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Jones, E., location unknown, straw hat makers, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Milliners & c, when address given as East the Water.

1851 Census has an Eliza Jones who is aged 14, a house servant in Torrington Lane. Unable to find any other candidates.

Jones, Elizabeth, location uncertain, stay maker, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Jones Elizabeth, Staymaker, East the Water”

Jones, Hannah, location unknown, earthenware and glass merchants, ?-1822 till 1830-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Earthenware and Glass Merchants. Address given as East the Water.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Earthenware, Glass &c. Dealers, as “Jones Hannah, East the Water”

Keates, William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Shopkeepers & Dealers in Groceries & Sundries, as “Keates William, East the Water”

Keates, William Henry (see Ship on Launch), ?-1902-?

See Ship on Launch P.H. in the Inns section

Kevan, Miss, of 4 Barnstaple Street, Dress and Mantle Maker, ?-1895-?

On 18 Mar 1895 Miss Kevan of 4 Barnstaple Street, East-the-Water, Bideford, advertised in the Bideford Weekly Gazette [p4 c1] for an apprentice.

Kivell, R, of Nutterberry?, Coal, Sand & Gravel trader, ?-1889 till 1891-?

"The Surveyor reported that Mr. Kivell building a Quay wall, East-the-Water, some six or seven feet further out into the river than the adjoining walls.—Mr Cock remarked that recently when built quay wall in that locality they did not go nearly so far out as the land purchased would allow, and he expected that some thing of the sort was taking place in Mr.Kivell's case, only to a smaller degree. -- Mr. Dymond and others spoke of the necessity of uniformity being observed and of the Board of Trade line not being exceeded, and it was agreed that the Streets and Roads Committee should investigate." ["Encroachment on Rights" Bideford Weekly Gazette 25 June 1889 p5 c3]

On 18 Nov 1890 the Bideford Gazette carried an announcement [p1 c1], that Bartlett & Son. Timber Merchants. East-the-Water, Bideford would be taking over "the Coal, Sand and Gravel Business, carried on by Mr. R. Kivell"

In July 1891 a tender was excepted, by Bideford Council, from Mr. R. Kivell, sen., for barging pebbles at 5d. per yard. [“Pebbles” Bideford Weekly Gazette 21 July 1891 p5 c4]

In 1903, a report, into the death of a child, mentioned that “Brewer's galloping hourses occupied Mr. Kivell's yard, East-the-Water” and that “the yard adjoins the river Torridge” [“Singular Fatality at Bideford” Western Times 09 September 1903 p4 c6]

Kivell, Richard, of Torrington Lane, baker, 1838?-1889 till 1919-?

A later claim to have been trading for 60 years suggests a start date of c. 1838. Newspaper searches suggest that some of this period may have been spent outside East-the-Water.

Mr R Kivell of East-the-Water was advertising for an apprentice to learn baking [Bideford Weekly Gazette 12 Apr1889 p4 c1] R. Kivell "Begs to announce that he has secured the services of a First-class Confectioner, and that in addition to his Noted Bread, he will supply Pastry and Confectionery generally, of the Best Quality and at Moderate Charges, on or after Thursday, 21st Inst., Christmas Market Day."

The following advertisement appeared in The Bideford Weekly Gazette for 1 Feb 1898 [p4 c5] - "R. Kivell, Mill St. and East-the-Water, Bideford. Established 60 Years. Home-made bread and cakes."

“Christmas Cakes and Confectionery in great variety may be obtained at Mr. R. Kivell's Mill Street, or East-the-Water establishments. Mr. Kivell makes a speciality of his mince pies. He guarantees that all his Christmas goods are made on the premises, and from his own dairy produce.” are places from which baked good could be obtained. [“A Round of the Shops, Bideford Weekly Gazette 22 December 1898 p5 c5]

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Kivell Richard, baker, Torrington lane, East-the-Water
& 60 Mill street

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a baker, at 31 & 32 Torrington Lane (also at 60 Mill Street)

In 1953 an advertisement for North Devon Bakeries Ltd. claimed that they incorporated the Madge and Kivell Bakeries [Ascott, Random Notes on Old Bideford and District. Bideford: Gazette, 1953, advertisements on the back pages]

Kynoch's Ltd, of Kynoch's shore, c1918 till 1926-?

Plans for a railway siding, to access both Bartlett's and Kynoch's, were drawn up in May 1918. (NDRO ref. B733/2/18)

An ammunitions manufacturer, who set up a new plant particularly producing acetone during the 1st World War. Acetone was an essential raw material for munitions. The plant was demolished at the end of the war.

Commenting on an illustration entitled "Bartlett's timber yard in 1920 with the railway van (right) sitting in the old sidings" reproduced from the 75th edition of Atlantic Coast Express the magazine of the Bideford Railway Heritage Centre [2008]", Peter Christie notes that the Bartlett rail sidings, at Kynochs, East-the-Water, "served Bartlett's timber yard along with a First World War munitions factory” and that he had previously published a picture from 1926 of female workers from the plant." [Peter Christie. Untitled letter. http://www.northdevonjournal.co.uk/State-Bideford-park-great-pity/story-12148217-detail/story.html#ixzz45LTMyxhb accessed 9 Apr 2016]

On 09 Nov 1933, the North Devon Journal [p5 c3] reported the inquest on the tragic death of Alfred James Dark, son of Mrs & Mrs A. J. Dark, of Sentry Corner. Alfred, whilst seeking tadpoles, had fallen into a disused concrete tank and drowned. Reflecting on the verdict, a police inspector called Kynoch's Yard “a happy hunting ground for children.”

Lake, Richard, of Barnstaple Street, coal merchant, lime burner & maltster, ?-1843 till 1853-?

The North Devon Journal 13 April 1843 [p3 c2] reported a conviction for the theft of chickens, the property of “Richard Lake, lime-burner, East-the-Water, Bideford.”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Coal Merchants, Lime burners & Maltsters, when address given as East the Water.

Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 29 November 1845 [p3 c4] reported that “Richard Lake, Lime burner” had been unsuccessful in his bid for a place on Bideford Council, being defeated 166 votes to 99.

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Maltsters, when address given as East the Water.

1851 Census has in Barnstaple Street, listed two down from the Ship-on-Launch Inn, in the direction of the toll gate.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Lime Burners, when address given as East the Water.

The Bideford Weekly Gazette for 07 June 1864 [p4 c7] refers to the marriage of “Annie, relict of the late Mr. Richard Lake, merchant, of Bideford, to Mr. William Smith, Slade Villa, Ilfracombe.” Which may relate to this trader.

Lake, Simon, location unknown, tailor, ?-1822 till 1830-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Tailors. Address given as East the Water.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Tailors and Drapers, as “Lake Simon, East the Water”

Lake, Simon Hay, location unknown, marine store dealer, ?-1867-?

In 1867, in testimony at a trial, he revealed that he paid 8s. per cwt. for old junk, “if good 9s.” On this occasion, it was claimed, that Richard Inch, a candle maker employed by Mr. Edward Down, a marine store dealer, had misappropriated some of the “old junk” that Mr. Down regularly sent by rail, and had sold it to Lake [“Charge of Robbing from an Employer” North Devon Journal 22 August 1867 p8 c1-2]

One Simon Lake is listed as the former occupant of a house on Clarence Wharf, offered at auction in November 1867, offered with Clarence Wharf itself, and described as “a Dwelling House adjoining, late in the occupation of Mr. Simon Lake.The house is described as comprising “Front Parlour & Kitchen, Back Kitchen, Wash-house, 5 good Bed Rooms, 2 small Rooms, and Water Closet.” [“Bideford, Devon” North Devon Journal 28 November 1867 p1 c1] It seems more likely that this house was occupied by the dealer than by the tailor of the same name.

Lang, George, location unknown, schoolmaster, ?-1844-?

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Schools [an individual so presumably a schoolmaster], when address given as East the Water.

Lee, Charles H., of 6 Clifton Street, painter and decorator, ?-1934?

On 7 Jun 1934 the North Devon Journal published an account of the funeral of a Mr. Charles H. Lee of 6 Clifton Street, aged 56 and dying after a short illness. The article claimed he was well known locally as a “painter and house decorator.” [“Late Mr. Charles H. Lee of Bideford” p3 c8]

Lee, Thomas, location unknown, beer retailer, ?-1853-?

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Retailers of Beer, when address given as East the Water.

In 1861 several premises were offered for sale by one Mr. F. Lee. On Sept 12th, Bath House Bideford, then, on the Sept 18th,:

Then on 19th there was to be a furniture sale at the house of Mr. R. Giddy.

["Sales Auction by Mr. F. LEE. " Bideford Weekly Gazette 10 September 1861 p1 c3] This has the feel of being an executors sale, but this has still to be checked.

Lee, William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under both Shopkeepers and Stonemasons, when address given as East the Water.

Lee, W. T., 18 Barnstaple Street, Grocer, ?-1949-?

In December 1949 one “W. T. Lee, The Stores, 18, Barnstaple Street, Bideford (East)” advertised for a housekeeper “with slight knowledge of the grocery trade.” [“Situations Vacant” North Devon Journal 15 December 1949 p2 c4]

Lethbridge, John, location unknown, gardener or seedsman, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Gardeners and Seedsmens, as “Lethbridge John, East the Water”

Ley, Harry, of 17 Torrington Street, watch repairer, ?-1919-?

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a watch repairer, at 17 Torrington Street.

Ley, Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, Nuttaberry, and the Town Quay, merchant, shipping agent & lime burner, ?-1839 till 1853-?

From examination of the census returns, it appears that, in both 1841 and 1851, there is only one adult individual living in Bideford called Thomas Ley. This individual, baptised in Jul 1790 in Monkley, but now residing on the town quay, was a councillor, and at one time mayor. He died in the Jul quarter of 1869.

Thomas Ley appears, in the Bideford individuals section in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Ley Thomas, Corn & coal merchant, maltster, ship owner, & agent for the Family Endowment Life & Annuity Society, Quay.” In the classified section he appears under the Corn merchant, coal merchant, and maltster, all at Quay, but also under “Limeburners” as “Ley Thomas, East the Water.”

The 1841 Census lists only one Thomas Ley in Bideford, a merchant, aged c. 50, and living on the town quay. At that time he must have been leasing the wharf, as its owner was Augustus Saltren Cleveland (formerly Willett)

John Wood's plan of 1842 shows “Tho's Ley's Wharf” immediately opposite the old work house (which is now the Colonial Buildings section of the Royal Hotel)

Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 09 April 1842 [p3 c4] reported the following “About two o'clock on Friday morning two lighters laden with coals, belonging to Mr. Thomas Ley, merchant, sunk in the river near the bridge. the men were taken off by a boat which came to their assistance in time to save their lives.”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Lime burners, when address given as East the Water.

Bideford Bridge Trust leased a property in Nuttaberry to one Thomas Ley in 1839 (it was then leased to a William Major in 1844), North Devon Records Office, ref. BBT/DL/Bundle 90.

In 1848 a case involved the theft of vetches by Mrs Elizabeth Cole, wife of John Cole, from a field in East-the-Water belonging to Mr. Thomas Ley. No further details of its location were given. John Cole had been a trustworthy employee of Mr. Ley. [North Devon Journal 11 May 1848, p3 c4]

On the 1851 Census he is listed as “Merchant & Alderman” and resides at “Quay” (i.e the town quay).

On 29 Aug 1852 the North Devon Journal [p1 c5] carried notice for the auction of the property of one Thomas Ley, who was about to leave the area. This property, most of which was west of the Torridge, included limekilns near Landcross Bridge. He also sold the Three Crowns in Barnstaple Street.

In 1853 Thomas Ley was the Bideford Agent for excursion trips on the Steamship Princess Royal [North Devon Journal 06 January 1853 p1 c4]

In 1860 Mr. Thomas Ley, of Bridgeland-street, offered for sale or let, an extensive malt house in the lower part of Cooper Street, adjoining the broad quay [Bideford Weekly Gazette 23 October 1860 p4 c5]

On the 1861 Census he is living at Bridgeland Street, and gives his occupation as “Retired Merchant”

Despite his supposed retirement, 1862 saw him offering for sale “Myatt's Ashleave Kidney Potatoes,” along with “some Common Early Ashleaves,” and “the old sort of IRISH RED ROUGHS,” which he had spent twelve years breeding back to their earlier form [Bideford Weekly Gazette 11 March 1862 p1 c3]

The North Devon Journal of 12 August 1869 [“Deaths” p8 c5] announced his demise “August 7, at Bridgeland-street, Bideford, Mr. Thomas Ley, aged 79”

Lile, John, of Barnstaple Street, tin-plate worker, painter, plumber, ?-1838 till 1878-?

His workshop is believed to have been just N of the end of the bridge, probably where the Royal Hotel's garden is now.

Giving evidence in a case John Lile stated “am a tin plate worker and a constable; keep a shop at the bridge end, east the water” . . . “prisoner came to my show and asked me if I bought pewter; he asked me what I gave, and I said 6d. per lb.[“Bideford Quarter Sessions” North Devon Journal 12 April 1838 p1 c6]

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Painters & Glzrs, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under 'Ironmongers, Braziers, and Tin-plate Workers' (with a parenthetical note that he was also a plumber), when address given as East the Water.

In Febrary 1854, one Mr. Lile, of East-the-Water, was providing an outlet for tickets to lectures organised by Bideford Teetotal Society. [“Bideford Teetotal Society” North Devon Journal 16 February 1854 p4 c1]

In 1862 the Local Board surveyor mentioned the construction of a new drain “from and communicating with Mr. John Lile's premises, East-the-Water.” [“Local Government Board” Bideford Weekly Gazette 07 January 1862 p4 c3]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a plumber, brazier & tin plate wrkr. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Lile, Thomas, Torrington Street?, beer retailer, ?-1844 til 1850-?

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Retailers of beer, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Beerhouses, when address given as East the Water.

See also entry for the Blacksmith's Arms in the Inns, Public Houses and Hotels section, where he seems to have been the publican. The brewery was next-door to the north.

Lion Stores, of Barnstaple Street, ?-1976 till 1990?

In 1976 planning application documents, associated with a refused change of use, mention approval for the erection of a storage shed (presumably the current building) in Feb 1934 and also that the previous owner was 'Fulford Trumps.' It looks as if the application was refused because a similar one had been approved elsewhere.

Planning use history indicates that a change of use to become a retail outlet, was refused in 1976.

Planning history indicates approval of a change of use from Lion Stores warehouse to manufacture of craft, needlework, product, office and store in 1990. Proposal submitted by A & S Deighton, Quality Needlework & Tapestry Manufacturers.

Planning history indicates a change of use to auction room permitted in 1994

Lisle, John, location uncertain, plumber, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Lisle John, Plumber, East the Water”

Lisle, Thomas, location uncertain, beer retailer, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Lisle Thomas, Beer retailer, East the Water”

London & South Western Railway Co.

See Appendix 1, Development of the railways

Madge, Simon, location unknown, earthenware manufacturer, ?-1822-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Earthenware Manufacturers. Address given as East the Water.

Rogers noted that Jane Willcock owned a pottery in East-the-Water, still working in 1828, and let successively to Simon Madge, _ Cortis, and Swain and Pluckey (or Plucknett) [Wm. Henry Rogers Notes on Bideford. 3 vols. Typed manuscript. c1920-40. Chope Collection, Bideford Public Library. Vol 1, Pg 79].

Madge, J., location uncertain, baker, ?-1887 till 1888-?

“TO BAKERS.--Wanted at once a Young Man as BREAD BAKER; one able to make dough and mould.--Apply James Madge, Baker, East the Water, Bideford.” [“Situations Vacant” Western Times 21 May 1887 p2 c1]

“TO BAKERS.--Wanted a Young Man, about 18.--Apply James Madge, Baker, East the Water, Bideford.” [“Situations Vacant” Western Times 06 August 1888 p2 c1]

In 1899 an advert appeared for a young man for a bakehouse, to apply to “Madge Hygianic[sic] Bakery, Bideford” [“Situations Vacant” Western Times 21 March 1899 p4 c1] It is not clear if this was still in East-the-Water.

In 1953 an advertisement for North Devon Bakeries Ltd. claimed that they incorporated the Madge and Kivell Bakeries [Ascott, Random Notes on Old Bideford and District. Bideford: Gazette, 1953, advertisements on the back pages]



Manning, Zilla (Mrs.), of Railway Terrace, landlady, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Manning Zilla (Mrs.), aparts. Railway ter. East-the-Water

May, Mary (Mrs), of 25 Torrington Lane, shopkeeper, ?-1919-?

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a shopkeeper, at 25 Torrington Lane.

May, William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers, when address given as East the Water.

Max Factor, location unknown, cosmetics manufacturer, 20th C.

Howard Cookes, of the Paint Mines, “later married an ‘Avon Lady’ who despite much speculation had no connection to the MAX FACTOR cosmetics company, who already had a factory based in East the Water, another lucrative avenue for business - Bideford Black being used in the production of mascara.” ['Memories of “Uncle Howard”' Bideford Blackblog. 19 March 2013 Online: http://bidefordblack.blogspot.co.uk/2013/03/memories-of-uncle-howard.html Accessed: 1 Jul 2016]

Mills, of Clarence Wharf, occupation unknown, ?-1867-?

One “Mr. Mills” is listed as the occupant of “Stores, Stables, Sawpits, and Sheds, now erected thereon,” at Clarence Wharf, when it was offered at auction in November 1867 [“Bideford, Devon” North Devon Journal 28 November 1867 p1 c1] This is possibly James Mills, a Merchant associated with John Johnson, who seems to have held Clarence Wharf at that time.

Mills, John, of Queen's Wharf, blacksmith, 1888-?

In 1888 he announced his solo business venture, based on Queen's Wharf, following the dissolution of a partnership with Herniman Bideford Weekly Gazette 17 January 1888 p4 c2]

Metherall, John, location unknown, block maker, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a block maker [for ships' rigging]. Address given as Torrington Street.

Mitchell, Hartnell, location unknown, hair dresser, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Mitchell Hartnell, hair dresser, Torrington street, East-the-Water

Mitchell, Thomas, of Torrington Lane, Coal Merchant ?-1893-1902-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a coal merchant, on Torrington Lane

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Mitchell Thomas, coal dealer & shopkeeper, Torrington lane, East-the-Water

Mock, Faith (Mrs), of Torrington Lane, shopkeeper, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a shopkeeper. Address given as Torrington Lane.

Newcombe's Wharf, of Barnstaple Street, ?-1842 till 1899-?

A “Newcombe's Wharf” is shown on Wood's plan of 1842, immediately south of Clarence Wharf.

The 1896 Wilson's Almanack and Directory of Bideford, Northam & Westward Ho! lists two Newcome's in the area in its commercial sections, Thos. Newcombe, a sawyer, of Rock Mount Terrace, Pitt lane, and a William Newcombe of Ford farm. Neither have, as yet, proved to be connected with this wharf.

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 23 February 1897 [p4 c1] carried the following advertisement “NEWCOMBE'S WHARF.--To be LET, from Lady-day next, a large LOFT, late in the occupation of Mr Millman.--Apply to Mr Harris, Bulkworthy.

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 25 July 1899 [p4 c1] carried an advertisement “To be Let, from Michaelmas next, a large Store in Newcombe's wharf, East-the-Water. – for particulars, apply to Wm. Harris, East Putford.”

On 20th Feb 1844, a Conveyance to uses to bar dower, for a dwelling in Silver Street, Bideford involved one William Newcombe, of Bulkworthy, yeoman. [North Devon Records Office, B609/5]. This may be relevant as Bulkworthy is mentioned in a later transaction. Earlier transactions involving Newcombe of Putford, also mention Newcombe of East Putford, another location mentioned in later transactions.

One William Newcombe of Bulkworthy married Mary Risdon of same place ; his father, John,' d. in Bulkworthy 1824, ae. 86. His son John, born about 1804, married Jane Harris, then moved to America in 1853, living for a short time in Canada [John Bearse Newcomb. Genealogical memoir of the Newcomb family, containing records of nearly every person of the name in America from 1635-1874. Also the first generation of children descended from females who have lost the name Newcomb by marriage. With notices of the family in England during the past seven hundred years. Pg 52. Online. http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/john-bearse-newcomb/genealogical-memoir-of-the-newcomb-family-containing-records-of-nearly-every-pe-cwe/page-52-genealogical-memoir-of-the-newcomb-family-containing-records-of-nearly-every-pe-cwe.shtml Accessed 11 Nov 2016]. It is therefore possible that Newcombe's Wharf was the English end of an American enterprise.

On 10th May 1877 the North Devon Journal [p8 c6] carried the news that “Mrs. Susan Newcombe, relict of the late W. Newcombe, of Hankford, Bulkworthy, Devonshire, England” had died on 10 April, at 97 Bond Street, Toronto, aged 76. Not yet sure if this Susan is part of the same family as the William above.

It seems quite likely that the family of the Newcombe who gave his name to this wharf had emigrated, with the wharf entrusted to local representatives of the Harris branch.

North Devon Bakery, location uncertain, bakers, ?-1895 till 1996-?

In 1881 there was already a “Barnstaple and North Devon Bakery,” in premises at 45 High Street, Barnstaple, managed by W. Lang, and operating a series of Jennison's Patent Ovens. This is sometimes contracted to “North Devon Bakery.” Given the advertisement from 1947, it seems likely that this enterprise represents that company's attempt to expand into Bideford.

On 6 Aug 1895 the Western Times [“Miscellaneous Situations” p2 c4] carried an advertisement from the North Devon Bakery, Bideford, for a “Foreman Baker; well up in bread, pastry, and smalls.”

Advertisement in the Bideford Weekly Gazette for 12 Nov 1895 [p1 c2] "For Pure Bread and Good Cakes go to the North Devon Bakery, East-the-Water, Bideford.

Advertisements only appeared under this name for two months.

This is likely to be the "new Steam Bakery" announced by T. Fry, for on 19 Nov 1895 the Bideford Weekly Gazette carried the following [p5 c3] “The North Devon Bakery Company has commenced operations, its smart carts being very much in evidence in the town, delivering bread and cakes. The bakery is established in Mr. Fry's warehouse, East-the-Water. It is light and well ventilated, and spotlessly clean. Indeed cleanliness is the great virtue which the company claims. The corn is ground at Wear Gifford mills. It is brought to the bakery and sifted by machinery. Then it falls down a shute [sic] into a patent dough-mixer. This is a metal trough holding a sack of flour. When full, water is turned on, the yeast is thrown in, and a series of fans revolve, converting the sack of flour into dough, within twenty minutes. The trough is then tipped by a delicate balance adjustment, and the dough falls into a wooden trough, where it rises. The only time the baker handles the dough is when he is putting it into the tins for baking. The oven is heated by hot water pipes, and can be regulated with ease. When baked, the bread is carried into another chamber to cool, and thence is despatched for delivery to customers. For pastry making there is a long slab of marble. A special apparatus for preparing muffins has also been laid in.”

Around this time advertisements appear for a North Devon Machine Bakery, e.g. “WANTED, immediately, STRONG LAD, able to mould. State wages. – Apply North Devon Machine Bakery, Bideford.” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 11 August 1896 p4 c1] The same advert was run on 29 Oct and 7 Nov, 1896. On the 11 November the Western Times [p2 c1] carried “WANTED 8th November, GOOD SECOND; must be good moulder and setter.-- North Devon Machine Bakery, Bideford.”

The 1896 Wilson's Almanack and Directory of Bideford, Northam & Westward Ho! lists “North Devon Machine Bakery Co., East-the-Water, H. Fry, proprietor.

In Sept 1897 the North Devon Bakery had a car, carrying “ten bakers at work,” paraded in Bideford Cyclists' Carnival [Exeter Flying Post 23 September 1897 p5 c4]

In March 1898 Stapleton & Son's Torrington branch was known as “North Devon Bakeries” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 01 March 1898 p5 c6]

Whilst this could be the East-the-Water company, by 1898 a company of that name, owned by Stapleton & Sons. were operating out of 3 Mill Street, Bideford. [Bideford Weekly Gazette 22 December 1898 p5 c3]. Later this company would have a bakery in Cooper Street as well as a shop at 5 Mill Street [“Stapleton & Sons” Bideford Weekly Gazette 29 December 1904 p8 c4]

A round up of Bideford shops and their Christmas wares lists both “Messers Stapleton & Sons, North Devon Steam Bakery and Café, Mill Street” and “Mr. R. Kivell's Mill Street, or East-the-Water establishments” are places from which baked good could be obtained. [“A Round of the Shops, Bideford Weekly Gazette 22 December 1898 p5 c5]

In 1947 an advertisement for “The North Devon Bakeries Ltd. described it as an amalgamation of five “old established” businesses, The Barnstaple Bakery, John Richards, The Pilton Bakery, Hoad and Symons, and Kivell & Sons. [Gazette 29 December 1904 p6 c1] It is not clear that this relates in any way to North Devon Bakery.

North Devon Farmers Ltd. of Barnstaple Street, Agricultural Merchants & Engineers., ?-1953-?

Probably on Clarence Wharf, as their advertisement in Major Ascott's notes [W. Ascott, Random Notes on Old Bideford and District. Bideford: Gazette, 1953, advertisements on the back pages] reports that the Barum milestone was affixed to their wall. It also identifies them as “Agricultural Merchants & Engineers.”

Odam's Manure & Chemical Company Limited, of Barnstaple Street, fertilizer producers, ?-1905 till 1908-?

Odam's imported guano to their Topsham works, so possibly moved it from there to here. Adverts appear in the Bideford Gazette from 1905 till 1908

An advertisement appeared on 4 Jul 1905 [Bideford Weekly Gazette, p1 c2] in which they claimed By Royal Appointment suppliers of Fertilizers to His Majesty the King. At which time their advertisement was for “Special Turnip Fertilizer, Vitriolized Bones. Dissolved Bone Compounds. Superphosphates. Basic Superphosphate of Lime. (Hughes' Patent).” These products were available via the company's stores at “Odams' Wharf, East-the-Water, Bideford.” The company, however, was already long established, as “Odams' Manure & Chemical Company, Limited, Topsham, R.S.O., Devon”

In 1905 advertised as “Of Topsham, Devon, with stores at Odam's Wharf, East-the-water, Bideford” [Bideford Gazette 11 Jul 1905 p1 c2]

In 1906 advertised as “Selling all grades of Superphosphate of their own manufacture” [Bideford Gazette 22 May 1906 p1 c3]

In 1907 advertised as “Of Topsham, Devon, with stores at Odam's Wharf, East-the-water, Bideford” [Bideford Gazette 4 Jun 1907 p1 c3]

N.B. An Odams Wharf. Chemical Manure Works was established in North Woolwich Road, London, “in 1851 by James Odams, to make manure from liquid blood.” . . . “The firm was taken over in 1920 by neighbouring Anglo-Continental Guano Works Ltd.” ["Saturday, 25 AUGUST 2012, Edith's Streets; London Local History blog, http://edithsstreets.blogspot.co.uk/2012/08/bow-creekriver-lea-leamouth.html Accessed 25 Apr 2016] It is unclear how this company might relate to the Topsham and Bideford enterprises. The Devon Historian, ODAMS MANURE FACTORY 70:27-32 may contain more information on this.

Osborne James, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Osborne James, shopkpr. Barnstaple st. East-the-Water

Packard, Messrs., Clarence Wharf ?-1890-?

A photograph held by the Appledore Maritime Museum [ref. a1.395 Oldhams Wharf] shows that signs on the end of Steamer Wharf at one time read “Steamers Wharf. Odams” and “Pritchard. Coal, Cement, [unreadable] and General Merchant.” Pritchard was active at Steamer Wharf around 1889-90. In the background, on the end of a store that appears to be on Clarence Wharf is a sign reading “Packard's Manures”

Mentioned in 1890 when high tides caused damage at East-the-Water. “A large quantity of salt and manure were damaged and lost at Messrs. Pollard's stores; and also at Messrs. Packard's and Colwill's.” [“Extraordinary High Tides” Bideford Weekly Gazette 28 January 1890 p4 c6]

Peard, John, Clarence Wharf?, carpenter or joiner, ?-1830 till 1848-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Joiners and Carpenters, as “Peard John, East the Water”

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Peard John, Carpenter, East the Water”

On the details for the 1848 auction of Clarence Wharf, the advertisement states “for viewing the Premises application may be made to Mr. John Peard, of Bideford, Joiner.” [Western Times 07 October 1848 p1 c5]

Pearse, Gideon, location uncertain, fishmonger, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Pearse Gideon, Fishmonger, East the Water”

Petherick, Edward, location unknown, earthenware manufacturer, ?-1822 till 1844-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Earthenware Manufacturers. Address given as East the Water.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Earthenware Manfctrs, as “Petherick Edward, East the Water”

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Petherick Edward, Potter, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Earthenware manufacturers, when address given as East the Water.

Phear, Wiiliam, of Torridge Place, carrier, ?-1893 till 1902-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a carrier to Barnstaple, in East-the-Water

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Phear William, carrier to Barnstaple, Torridge pl. East-the-Water

Phillips & Co., of Torrington Lane, earthenware maker, ?-1877 till 1878-?

“Henry Phillips, who died in 1894 [sic], was partner with the present Mr. Radcliffe, the potter still at work at East-the-Water, where only the commonest ware is now produced; some quaint old shapes are still sometimes made, but in the sixties and eighties H. Phillips made handsome dishes decorated in sgraffito”. [T. Charbonnier. “Notes on North Devon Pottery of the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries.” Pages 255-260 in Report and Transactions – The Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and Art. Vol 38. 1906.pg 256]

“Bideford was probably the source of most of the harvest pitchers, especially those decorated with ships, as would be special to a seaport, but some were also made at Barnstaple and Fremington.” [T. Charbonnier. “Notes on North Devon Pottery of the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries.” Op. Cit. pg 256]

In these potteries “Fremington clay was used for the bodies, never Bideford Pipe Clay; pipe-clay very generally as a slip.” [T. Charbonnier. “Notes on North Devon Pottery of the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries.” Op. Cit. pg 256]

A fund-raising bazaar, in aid of the Bethel, included a stall of “Bideford ware, manufactured by Messrs. Phillips, Backway, and Redcleave, of East-the-Water pottery, and presented to the committee” [“Bazaar in Aid of the New Bethel” North Devon Journal 9 August 1877 p8 c1]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as an earthenware maker. Address given as Torrington Lane.

The 1881 Census lists Henry Phillips, aged 46, Earthenware Manufacturer, as head of a household living at 1 Torridge Mound [sic Mount], employing 4 men and 4 boys.

The 1891 Census lists Henry Phillips, aged 55, Potter, as head of a family at 3 Industrial Place (which row of premises appear to have incorporated Torridge Mount).

On 30 Nov 1891, one Mr Henry Phillips, aged 57, died at 3 Torridge Mount, East-the-Water. [“Deaths” Gazette 01 December 1891 p5 c6] The Index to Death Duty Registers shows his executor/administrator as M Phillips, the register itself being registry PR, affidavit 8934, Will 3366.

Henry Phillips (1835-91) is believed to have continued John Phillip's Bideford tradition of producing Harvest Jugs. Whilst his father's name was John, he does not appear to have been a potter. The census of 30 Mar 1851 lists, at Coldharbour, Bideford, one Henry Phillips, age 15, and born in Bideford, an apprentice potter. He is living with his father, John Phillips, aged 52 and born in Bideford, working as an agricultural labourer. The baptism record for Henry, 22 Feb 1835 at Bideford parish, gives his father's occupation as “Labourer.” This John Phillips is probably the John Philips baptised at Bideford on 27 May 1798 by William Philips and Elizth. [Ancestry.com. England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014.]

On 2 July 1899 Florence, youngest daughter of “the late Henry Phillips, of East-the-Water,” died, aged 20 [“Deaths” Bideford Weekly Gazette 04 July 1899 p5 c6].

The following notice appeared “MRS. PHILLIPS AND FAMILY Beg to thank numerous friends who have sympathised with them during their recent trial and bereavement. Torridge Mount, Bideford, July 11th, 1899” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 11 July 1899 p4 c6]

Phillips, James, of Torrington Street, shopkeeper, ?-1902 till 1919-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Phillips Jas. shopkpr. Torrington st. East-the-Water

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a shopkeeper, in Torrington St.

Phillips, William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1839 till 1844-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Phillips William, Shopkeeper, East the Water”

Listed in Pigots 1844 under Shopkeepers & dealers in groceries & sundries and as at East-the-Water

Pickard, Elizabet, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1844-?

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers & dealers in groceries & sundries, when address given as East the Water.

Pollard, Anna Maria, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-?

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers & Dealers in Groceries & Sundries, when address given as East the Water.

Pollard, George, of Barnstaple Street, shipping agent, ?-1870 till 1896

George Pollard, son of Thomas Pollard, took over the marine business of his father, Alderman Thomas Pollard (-1886). At times he seems to have acted independently, at times with his brother Thomas, as Messrs. G. & T. Pollard (see entry below).

The Bristol Times and Mirror of 27 September, 11 Oct, and 28 October 1870 [all p4 c7] carried advertisements for the “Increased steam communication between Bristol, Ilfracombe, Appledore, Bideford, and Barnstaple,” via the “powerful Passenger Power Steamship SPICEY.” The company agent given for the Taw/Torridge area was “GEO. POLLARD, Bideford.” By December 1870 the SPICY was running a twice weekly service to Cumberland Basin, Bristol, from Queen's Wharf, East-the-Water, with George Pollard acting as agent for “Bideford, Torrington, Holsworthy, Kilkhampton, and places adjacent” [“Increased Steam Communication” North Devon Journal 29 December 1870 p1 c6]

On 12 April 1877 the North Devon Journal [“Arbitration Case” p7 c4] reported that Bishop, of Bideford, joiner was suing George Pollard, of Bideford, steamer agent, for 13s for work done. The arbitration of Mr. R. T. Hookway had been agreed upon and he had found no basis for the claim. The claimant being charged 15s expenses.

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as Pollard George, a shipping agent, but also of Thomas Pollard & Son. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

On 15 Dec 1885 the following advertisement appeared in the Bideford Weekly Gazette [p1 c4] "Geo. Pollard, Coal and Manure Merchant, Steamer Wharf, East-the-Water, Bideford. A large stock of Best Newport Red Ash, Forest of Dean, and other Coals always in stock, at lowest prices. Agent for Odam's Chemical Manure Co., Limited. Agent for the Great Western Steamship Line, Bristol & New York, Sailings Weekly." Similar adverts appeared in 1886 & 1887.

THE STEAMER 'WATER LILY,' is being SOLD for £1,000, in 10 shares of £100 each. About half of the Shares are sold, and, with the view of keeping her employed at or near Bideford, applications for Shares from this district are invited. Full particulars from Mr. George Pollard, Bideford, or the Owner on board.” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 27 July 1886 p4 c1] A month earlier, at Whitsuntide, a steamer of the same name had been taking parties for short trips up and down the Torridge [North Devon Journal 17 June 1886 p8 c5] and earlier in July 1886 the Barnstaple section of the news noted that a Mr. Vicary had chartered her for trips [“Barnstaple” North Devon Journal 08 July 1886 p5 c3] It is not clear that Pollard managed to find enough support for this enterprise in Bideford, for the next year a steamer by the name Water Lily is operating a “Popular Marine Excursion” from Cardiff to Flatholm and Weston. [South Wales Daily News 04 June 1887 p1 c8]

In Oct 1887 George was still in business as a merchant, and shipping agent : “GEO. POLLARD, COAL AND MANURE MERCHANT, STEAMER WHARF, EAST-THE-WATER, BIDEFORD. A large stock of BEST NEWPORT RED ASH Forest of Dean and other Coals always in stock at lowest prices
Agents for
Odam's Chemical Manure Co. Limited
Agent for the Great Western Steamship Line,
BRISTOL & NEW YORK, SAILINGS WEEKLY” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 04 October 1887 p4 c3]

George Pollard does not seem to have been very active in business after 1887. He died suddenly, or a seizure, at his residence in East-the-Water, in March 1896. [“Death of Mr. George Pollard” North Devon Journal 12 March 1896 p5 c4] The report of his death in the Exeter Flying Post [“Death of Mr. George Pollard, Bideford” 7 March 1896 p8 c5] notes that he was found in his office.

An obituary in the North Devon Journal notes Mr. Pollard's prominence within the Town Council, as Borough Auditor for nine years, as a member of the school board, as a Wesleyan, as a Freemason, and as a mainstay of the annual regatta. [“Death of Mr. George Pollard” North Devon Journal 12 March 1896 p5 c4]

Pollard, George & Thomas, of Barnstaple Street, black, coal and manure manufacturer, and steam packet agents, ?-1884 till 1896

George (-?) and Thomas Pollard (-1924) were the sons of Alderman Thomas Pollard. Their father's obituary states that he was confined to his room for the last four years of his life, and he died in 1886 so references to Thomas Pollard, after 1882 are likely to refer to the younger Thomas Pollard (-1924). An obituary for George Pollard states that he was born in Ireland, during his parent's temporary residence there, and that “he and his brother succeeded to the shipping and marine connection of their father, under the name Messrs. G. and T. Pollard” [“Death of Mr. George Pollard” North Devon Journal 12 March 1896 p5 c4].

An advertisement, dated 8 Jan 1884, entitled “Steam Communication Between Bristol, Bideford, Padstow, Wadebridge” announced that “the S.S. Harold, of 150 tons, (or some suitable steamer), has commenced RUNNING REGULARLY between the above Ports, leaving Bristol EVERY WEEK for Bideford direct, and from Bideford to Padstow and Wadebridge. For Rates of Freight, and all other particulars, apply to Messrs, GEORGE & THOMAS POLLARD, Steamer Wharf, Bideford” The Bristol agent was Mr. J. Rowe, of 41, Welsh Back. [Bideford Weekly Gazette. 5 Feb 1884 p4 c2]

In January 1890, when an extraordinarily high tides flooded property at East-the-Water. “A large quantity of salt and manure were damaged and lost at Messrs. Pollard's stores” [“Extraordinary High Tides” Bideford Weekly Gazette 28 January 1890 p4 c6]

In June 1890 “Messrs. G. & T. POLLARD, Steamers Wharf, Bideford, appeared as agents on an advertisement for Dominion Line Royal Mail Steamers, who were operating the S.S. Sarnia, Oregon, & Vancouver, from Liverpool weekly and Bristol fortnightly, to Canada and the Western States. [Bideford Weekly Gazette 3 June 1890 p1 c4]

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as 'Pollard George & Thos. mineral black paint manufacturers,
coal & manure merchants, East-the-Water'

Wilson's Almanack and Directory of 1896 lists “Pollard, G. and T., mineral black paint manufacturers, Barnstaple Street.” [Wilson's 1896 Almanack and Directory of Bideford, Northam & Westward Ho! Bideford:Wilson's, 1896. Pg. 19]

The report of George Pollard's death in the Exeter Flying Post [“Death of Mr. George Pollard, Bideford” 7 March 1896 p8 c5] notes that he had been joint owner of the local culm mine.

In his obituary [“Death of Mr. George Pollard” Bideford Weekly Gazette 10 March 1896 p5 c1], it states that “Mr. Pollard, sen. [I.e his father, Thomas Pollard] acquired and worked with profit the well known paint mine at Gammerton [i.e. the Chapple Park mine], which has been continued under the firm of Messrs. G. & T. Pollard, down to the present time.

Pollard, Thomas (& Son), of Barnstaple Street, later Chapel Park, ?-1878-1919-?

Background on the product

According to the book, ‘Bideford Black, The history of a unique local industry,’ published by Sound Archives North Devon, three grades of paint were produced:- ‘Fillablack , the material received from the mine, dried and crushed (the old Bideford Black), Biddiblack sold as a pigment for the manufacture of paints, and Bettablack used as a rubber re-inforcing agent.’ Though these product names may be associated with a later phase of mining than that overseen by Pollard.

The culm mines before Pollard got involved

The Gentleman's Magazine article of 1755 reports that Bideford had “a culm pit, which was worked for fuel a few years ago, when coal, which is usually sold for one shilling per bushel, double Winchester, was very dear.” [The Gentleman's Magazine Library, 1731-1868. Part 3. London: Elliot Stock, 1893, p136]

The mine at Chappel Park came up for auction in 1818, [“Capital Estates, in the North of Devon” Trueman's Exeter Flying Post 02 July 1818 p3 c3] The auction notice describes the property as follows “The Fee-Simple and Inheritance of all that Field or Close of Land, called CHAPPLE PARK, situate on the East Land of Bideford aforesaid, distant about half a mile from the town of Bideford, in the occupation of Robert Stone, as tenant thereof at rack rent, containing about 8 acres and half of good land, about one acre thereof consists of thriving Timber of good size.-- In this field is a valuable Culm Mine, which may be worked to great advantage, as a considerable quantity of culm is used at Bideford in burning lime.” This seems too early for Thomas Pollard to have bought it at this point.

Thomas Pollard snr., raised in Cornwall

On the 1871 Census Thomas gives his birthplace as Ken, Cornwall, but on the 1881 it is Kenwyn, Cornwall. The 1851 Census has a Pollard family of tin miners at Kenwyn, who are possibly relatives.

One Thomas Pollard, son of George and Mary Pollard, was christened on 7 April 1805 at Kenwyn. The George Pollard who married Mary Roberts at Kenwyn on 10 Nov 1798, is likely to be his father. One George Pollard, miner, of Kenwyn, left a will that was proved in 1851 (Cornwall Records Office, AP/P/5225). In the late 18th C. small quantities of tin were raised from Pollard's Shaft, in Kenwyn [“Creegbrawse & Penkevil United Mine, Cornwall” Cornwall in Focus. Online:http://www.cornwallinfocus.co.uk/mining/creegbrawse.php ccessed:21 Nov 2016]

Thomas Pollard's earliest involvement c. 1825

Some time around 1820-30 the old culm mine at Chapel Park was opened up again by its owner Thomas Pollard. At least that is the picture provided by an article on coal mining in North Devon, published in 1873, which mentioned that 'Nearly fifty years ago Mr. Thomas Pollard, the owner of the “Black Paint and Anthracite Mine,” opened up an old working at Chapel Park, about a mile from the town. It was worked by the “Bideford Anthracite Company” [North Devon Journal 03 April 1873 p7 c2]. Evidence suggests this may, however, be a rather confused account, which is muddling up the mines. So it needs to be treated with caution until it can be verified or negated from other sources..

In an obituary [“Death of Mr. Alderman Pollard” North Devon Journal 04 February 1886 p8 c2] it states that he arrived in Bideford at age 19, with Sir Joshua Rowe, and re-opened the old anthracite mines on the east side of the river. From the 1871 Census his birth year was c. 1806, dating his arrival in Bideford to circa. 1825. Another obituary [“Death of Mr. Alderman Pollard” Bideford Weekly Gazette 02 February 1886 p5 c5] gives his age at death as 80, again suggesting he was born c. 1806. The same obituary states that he “first worked the anthracite mines, and afterwards opened up the paint mines which have continued in full working up to the present day.” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 02 February 1886 p5 c5]

About 1822-3, was the approximate date suggested for Thomas Pollard's first involvement with a culm mine that would later be operated by the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company (according to his own evidence in a court case of July 1856, that he had been involved with it for 31 or 32 years, see entry for that company).

1827, papers refer to new speculative mining on the estate of Port, and there also being fine veins near Pillhead [North Devon Journal 02 March 1827 p4 c2]

The Bideford entry, in Pigot's directory of 1830, states “There are in the neighbourhood some culm, and mineral black paint mines ; the former are becoming very productive, having been worked but partially, until lately, for nearly two hundred years.” [Pigot's Directory for Devonshire, 1830. Pg. 183] Thus it seems that, at that time the paint mines were not particularly active.

In July 1830 the Valuable Culm Mine called Chapple Park was offered for sale [Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 17 July 1830 p3 c5]. In the same month a “Mr. John Sarell, of Bideford, was crossing a field called Chapel Park, in which Mr. Rowe's mine is situated, he acidentally stepped on a rope just as the machine was put into motion, and by the suddenjerk he was lifted upwards of six feet above the ground , having at the same time a shovel and mattock inhis hand; on his descent he fell with so much violence that he was dangerously hurt” [North Devon Journal 22 July 1830 p4 c3]

In June 1831 the fee-simple and inheritance of “Chapple Park” was offered for sale: “Situated near the town of Bideford, containing by estimation Eight Acres.
There is a valuable CULM MINE in the Field, with all necessary Shafts, Adits, &c. for working the same, and one of the Adits is considered essential to the advantageous working of the adjacent Mine. Possession will be given at Michaelmas next.” Particulars were to be had from Mr. TANNER, solicitor, of Crediton (the same solicitor used in a later sale) [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 02 June 1831 p1 c2].

Time in Co. Cork, Ireland c. 1833

George Pollard's obituary goes on to state that his father, Thomas Pollard, snr. migrated to Ireland, “and there, in Youghal, co. Cork, 63 years ago [i.e. circa. 1833] Mr. George Pollard was born.” [“Death of Mr. George Pollard” Bideford Weekly Gazette 10 March 1896 p5 c1] The presence of a Copperalley Close in Youghal, Co. Cork, suggests this might have been the area where Thomas' copper mining involvement was. Indeed Walsingham had searched for copper and silver deposits in that area in the early years of the Munster Plantation [Michael MacCarthy-Morrogh, The Munster Plantation: English Migration to Southern Ireland, 1583-1641. Oxford, 1986. 40]. Youghal lies about 20Km SW of Bunmahon, Waterford, on Ireland's “Copper Coast.” The 1851 Census gives George's birth-date as circa. 1833, but his birth-place as Bideford. On the 1861, where he is head of the household his birthplace is “Cork, Cork, Ireland”

In an obituary for his son, George [“Death of Mr. George Pollard” Bideford Weekly Gazette 10 March 1896 p5 c1], it was suggested that Thomas Pollard “came to Bideford in the early thirties, in connection with the mining industry,” which appears erroneous, perhaps based upon a miss-recollection of the 31-32 years mentioned in the 1856 court case, or perhaps this was when Pollard returned to Bideford from Ireland.

In 1839 Sir Henry de la Beche, wrote that 'Culm or Anthracite miners are now (1838) at work a mile on the east of Bideford” [Henry Thomas De La Beche. Report on the Geology of Cornwall, Devon and West Somerset . London:H.M. Stationery Office, Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1839. Page 514], i.e. at Chapple Park.

De la Beche goes on to reference a manuscript of Mr. John Rundle, M.P., a proprietor, from which De la Beche finds that “for the last year they have not done much there, but that about twelve to eighteen months since they drove a little under the adit, and in a short time obtained from 600 to 700 tons of anthracite. It appears these mines were partially opened by two parties, about twelve or fifteen years, for 200 fathoms in length, above an adit 15 fathoms deep. The eastern mine in full work, employed three men and five boys, and produced about 700 bushels, or 58 tons of anthracite per week. From the western mine about 1500 tons were raised in one year. The middle of the great anthracite bed, upon which all the chief workings have been carried on, is described as varying from 6 inches to 14 feet in thickness, the average being 7 feet. As far as had been seen or heard of this bed, it had everywhere been removed by old workings to the depth of 8 or 10 fathoms, as far probably as could be conveniently accomplished before the water became too abundant for the common machinery employed.” John Rundle, a banker and M.P. for Tavistock, (along with others, as he is called a proprietor, rather than the proprietor) presumably took over the mine from Rowe in 1831, prompting Pollard's move to Ireland.

Murchinson and Hunt, noting that the eastern mine produced about “700 bushels or 58 tons of anthracite per week,” suggest that “there is evidently some error here, arising no doubt from the great uncertainty existing as to the weight of a bushel of coal. the ordinary bushel was estimated at 59 pounds avoirdupoise, but the Cornish heaped bushel of coal was 86 pounds” [Roderick I. Murchinson & Robert Hunt. Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into several matters Relating to Coal in the United Kingdom. Vol 3. Report of Committee E. Statistics of Production, Consumption, and Export of Coal. London:Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1871. p 128]

In 1840, according to A Topographical Dictionary of England [Samuel Lewis. Vol 1 of 4. London:Lewis, 1840. Pg 203], Mines of culm and black mineral paint are found in the vicinity, and on the rectorial glebe : the old culm mines have been lately re-opened, with every prospect of advantage.

The Bideford Culm and Black Paint Mine Established, 1841

In 1841 Nineteen Fifty-sixth shares in the Bideford Culm and Black Paint Mine were offered for sale by private contract. At which time the advertisement stated “The Mine is now in full work, and a very large quantity of Culm and Paint are discovered, and now open, which can be raised at a very small cost by the aid of a good Steam Engine, which was erected about 12 months since, and is working at a trifling cost, the Culm of the Mine being used for the purpose.” Those wishing to purchase shares were referred to Mr. Matthews, Mining Office, Tavistock,” and those wishing to inspect the mine were referred to “Capt. Pollard, on the Mine, at Bideford” [Western Times 30 October 1841 p1 c2]

In August 1842, “a man named Pickard, who had been employed in the Culm Mines, in Chappel Fields, near that Town, belonging to Capt. Pollard, lost his life by the falling in of a large portion of the earth which had been excavated to raise the culm” . . . “and in consequence of the immense frizure and heaps of earth the body is buried in, it will be impossible to get it out for several days. The poor fellow has left a widow and six children.” . . . “This is the third or fourth similar occurrence attended with melancholy loss of life that has happened within a few years, since the commencement of working these mines.” [Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 20 August 1842 p3 c5]

Wood, Pollard & co., 1843-44

In 1843 and 1844 there are references to a “Wood, Pollard and co.” operating a mine, to which belonged a lighter (or barge). A working hypothesis is that Pollard , Wood & co. were working the Barnstaple Street mines, as that mine is not shown on Wood's plan of 1842, and Thomas Pollard claimed to have worked that mine before the Bideford Anthracite Company took over in 1849.

In 1844, when a well, under construction at Bideford union-workhouse, collapsed trapping two workmen, “Captain Pollard, belonging to Bideford culm mines, and several of his men,” rendered assistance. The men were both rescued, but only after some five or six hours of toil. [“Serious Accident” Bath Chronicle 06 June 1844 p2 c2]

Pollard on his own again

In July 1846 an accident was reported at Mr. Pollard's mine at Chappel Park: “On Friday a lamentable accident occurred at Chappel Park culm mine, to a man name Bageton, who was descending the shaft with one foot in a loop of the rope while he held on with his hands. It is supposed that his foot struck against the side and was jerked out, and the rope passing through his hands he fell to the bottom and was killed instantaneously. He was only 30 years of age, and has left a wife and one child.” [“Bideford” Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 18 July 1846 p3 c5]

In March 1846, at a public meeting to discuss railway plans, it was stated, it was believed in response to a question from Capt. Pollard, that “the engineer whose report he [Mr. Chanter] had read [concerning the cost banking the rivers] was Capt. Moorsom, who visited the port about a month ago, and stayed for two days.” [“Important Public Meeting” North Devon Journal 12 March 1846 p2 c6-7] This is possibly the same gentleman who gave evidence in 1856 concerning the Barnstaple Street Anthracite mine.

The 1846 sale, Chapple Park mine or Barnstaple Street mine?

P. Claughton, in Coal Mining in North Devon [Plymouth Mineral and Mining Club Journal. 7.1. Unknown. 3-6.], has commented that Chapel Park was “Sold to Bideford Anthracite Mining Company in 1846.” He is also reported to have stated that “An adit of over a mile in length is referred to in 1850, but it is understood that the intended connection with Chapel Park was not achieved.” [Claughton, P., Untitled Source (Personal Comment). SDV349831.Cited at http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results_Single.aspx?uid=MDV54232&resourceID=104 Accessed 21 Nov 2017.]

In July 1846 the local press refers to Chappel Park mine as Mr. Pollard's and in Nov 1846 the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company was formed. Pollard would later claim he sold the company their mine. However, there is a problem with the assumption that it was Chapple Park that Pollard sold. Whites Directory of 1850, in its general description of Bideford, does identify the Anthracite Mining Company Mine as being at Chapple Park, in Dec 1852, however, the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company was floated publicly, at which time it declared its assets, an interest in Chapple Park not being amongst them. From other evidence it appears that Pollard worked the Barnstaple Street mine before he concentrated on the Chapel Park mine. The best working hypothesis would appear to be that Pollard sold

In the case of Pollard v Gorrell, it was given in evidence that Gorrell worked in Capt. Pollard's mines, between 30th September, 1848, and 5th May, 1849. Gorrell was challenging the legality of Pollard retaining wages against unpaid bills in a shop of his cousin. Pollard stated in evidence, that “nearly all the men who came to work at the mines were men not worth 5s.--that he should decline to trust such men, unless they gave him an order on their master for payment out of their wages, and which they usually did: they were not compelled to come to his shop.”[North Devon Journal 23 January 1851 4 c5]

White's Devonshire Directory for 1850 contains the following listing in their Bideford section “Pollard Thos. paint, &c. merchant.”

In October 1850, the action “MAXWELL AND OTHERS, Directors of the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company v Pollard.” saw the directors of the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company sue Pollard for £23 13s 10d, for balance of account. The parties agreed to arbitration [North Devon Journal 17 October 1850 p5 c4-5].

Thomas Pollard, no doubt well aware of the impact the Taw Vale railway extension proposal might have, upon the interests of the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company, wrote in support of the competing Bideford and Tavistock proposal, but conceded that the Taw Vale's extension to Bideford was also a good idea for the town. [North Devon Journal 27 March 1851 p6 c4]

In the Jul 1856 case of Mill v Pridham, Dingle & others, [North Devon Journal 17 July 1856 p3 c2-3] Thomas Pollard acted as an expert witness for the prosecution, which was against the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company. His testimony he states “I have been involved in mining operations all my life. I know the mine in question. I sold it to the present company, and then worked it for them a while.” . . . “I have had to do with this mine one or two and thirty years: no one as had to do with it as much as myself.” It is clear that the case concerned the workings in the vicinity of Barnstaple Street, rather than those at Chapple Park.

In Dec 1856 the fee-simple of Chapple Park was offered for sale: “'CHAPPLE PARK;' Consisting of 9a. 2r. 10p. of Land, of which 7a. 2r. 12p. are very prime Arable or Pasture Land, and 1a. 3r. 38p. of Coppice and Timber; with the adit therein let on Lease for Ten Guineas a year exclusively of the Land and Coppice.
Mr.
Joseph Risdon, Surveyor, of Bideford, will will direct a person to shew the Property, and further particulars may be obtained from him or Mr. TANNER, Solicitor, Crediton. Dated November 19th, 1856.” [North Devon Journal 04 December 1856 p1 c1]

In April 1861 the Local Government Board heard how the Surveyor had inspected the Chapple Park Road and found it in need of “instant effort” to “render it passable; it being the thoroughfare leading to Mr. Pollard's paint mines a large number trod it daily.” [North Devon Journal 18 April 1861 p5 c5]

In 1866-7 the Bideford Anthracite Mining Company, who are sometimes credited with working Chapple Park, ceased trading. It is notable that nothing significant seems to have happened at Chapple Park at that time, and that these are referred to as Mr. Pollard's mines either side of this date.

'Mr. Dingle, Mayor of Bideford, 1868, writes, “The black paint is still raised and sold.”' [Roderick I. Murchinson & Robert Hunt. 1871 Op.Cite. Pg 128]

In May 1868 a man called Johns, “employed in Mr, Pollard's paint mines” was nearly completely buried by a collapse. Although seriously injured, he was expected to recover. [“Accident” Bideford Weekly Gazette 05 May 1868 p4 c4]

In August 1868, Thomas Pollard may be the target of comments criticising “one uproarious and turbulent member of the Board” “the owner of a small paint mine near the proposed reservoir at which he has a small water wheel, which he works sometimes (when water can be obtained) from the Port stream.” [ North Devon Journal 06 August 1868 p8 c3]

On the 1871 Census he is listed at 22 Barnstaple Street, East-the-Water, aged 65 (i.e. born c. 1806) and born in Ken, Cornwall. He gives his occupation as “(Merchant) Mining Agent”. His wife Mary, aged 71, was born in Bideford, as was his daughter Emma, aged 35.

In July 1873, Pollard was concerned with his ability to ship his product: “Mr. T. pollard, who is the owner of the Paint Mines in this town, and who ships a large quantity every year, and is in some degree interested in our steam communication with Bristol, is well acquainted with the disadvantages under which the town labours.” “He stated that there was a quay frontage of 1,200 feet, and there was only one berth in which we could lay a vessel with any degree of safety. He would move that the Board of Trade be communicated with, and an Inspector brought down to enforce the removal of the mud and filth accumulated by the Quay wall.” [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 24 July 1873 p3 c1]

North Devon Records Office hold a copy lease for 14 years, dated 4 November 1873 [Ref. B127-6/375], between John Bishop, of Bideford, stationer, and William Pridham, of Bideford, coach proprietor. According to the catalogue the property comprised “Several fields called Chapple Parks and Boyne's Moor Parks, Bideford” and the lease “Includes provisos on timber, mines, quarries, etc.”

Trading as Thomas Pollard & Son.

An obituary, from 1924, suggests that just over fifty years earlier (i.e. about 1873, Thomas Pollard, jnr. had returned to England to join his brother George, and his father Thomas, in the family business. Prior to that he had spent time at sea, made his way to Australia at the time of the gold rushes, the ranched in Australia and New Zealand. [“Death of Ald. Thomas Pollard of Bideford” North Devon Journal 10 January 1924 p8 c4]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as Pollard Thomas & Son black paint manfrs. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Thomas Pollard senior died in 1886, after which his son, of the same name, continued the business, but trading as simply Thomas Pollard, rather than as part of Thomas Pollard & Son. Another of Thomas senr.'s sons, George, is known to have been joint owner of the paint mines. So, as Thomas seems to have taken over the management of the mines, he was possibly another owner.

The North Devon Journal's obituary for Thomas Pollard senr. [“Death of Mr. Alderman Pollard” 4 February 1886 p8 c2] notes that “It is now so long that Thomas Pollard has been laid aside by serious illness that the news of the death of the venerable alderman, though it will be received with general and deep regret, will occasion but little surprise.” In addition to details noted elsewhere in the above account, this obituary notes that “He was also connected with some copper mines in the south of Ireland.” He was a very active councillor and instrumental in the sighting of the water works. He was also “a Director both of the Appledore and the Bideford Gas Company.” “For four years he had been confined to his room.”

North Devon Records Office hold an assignment of leases for the remainder of the term of 14 years, dated 6 July 1886 [Ref. B127-6/379], involving William Pridham, of Bideford, farmer, Malcolm Bicknell, of London, Esq., Arthur Channing Bicknell, of London, Esq., and His Honour William Lucius Selfe, of London, judge in County Courts. According to the catalogue the property comprised “Salterns Farm, Chapple Parks and Boyns Moor Parks, Bideford.” Lease for Salterns to run 15 years from 1873, the other properties to run for 14 years from 1873.

Thomas Pollard jnr. takes over after his father's death

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 13 April 1897 carried the following short advertisement: “WANTED, QUARRYMEN. – Apply to T. Pollard, Bideford” [“Situations Vacant” p4 c1]

On 23 September 1890 the Bideford Weekly Gazette reported the cancellation of the sailing of an excursion to Swansea on the Privateer. The telegram was quoted “Sept. 22, 1890, Swansea Office. Handed in at 12.21 this morn. To Pollard, Bideford. Privateer just arrived back since Saturday ; blowing gale all night.--Toms. Received Bideford, 12.34”

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Pollard Thomas, mineral black paint manufacturer, coal & manure merchant, East-the-Water

In August 1902 “T. Pollard, Bideford” advertised “TO LET, the DEPASTURAGE of 7 or 14 acres GRASS to 1st January 1902” [“Articles Wanted or for Sale” Bideford Weekly Gazette 12 August 1902 p4 c1]

In November 1902, “T. Pollard” was inviting applications for the let, from Christmas next, of premises in East-the-Water (probably Steamer Wharf), comprising “an excellent LOFT and two GROUND STORES with free wharfage, now in the occupation of the Bideford and Bristol S.S. Co.” [“Houses to Let & Wanted” Bideford Weekly Gazette 18 November 1902 p4 c1]

He appears in the London Gazette of 28 December 1906 [p9153 c2] listed as “Thomas Pollard, Chapel Park, Bideford, Contractor”

On 30 June 1908 the Bideford and North Devon Gazette [p4 c1] carried an advertisement “GOOD QUARRYMEN WANTED.--Apply T. Pollard, Bideford.”

In July 1908 T. Pollard slipped and fell 15 feet into the hold of a vessel, receiving a severe shaking [Western Times 29 July 1908 p3 c1]

In Dec 1908 T Pollard was advertising good clear and hot burning culm at Steamer Wharf, East-the-Water [Bideford and North Devon Weekly Gazette 8 Dec 1908 p2 c4], this clear, hot burning, product he also seems to have marketed as his “special coal,” priced at one shilling per cwt. [Bideford and North Devon Weekly Gazette 22 December 1908 p10 c4]

On 5 Jan 1909 T. Pollard, Bideford, advertised the sale of “an APPROPRIATION of £100 with a fully paid up Share in the Starr-Bowkett Building Society.” [“Miscellaneous” Bideford Weekly Gazette 05 January 1909 p4 c1]

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as Pollard Thomas, a mineral black paint manufacturer, at Chapel Park, East-the-Water.

North Devon Records Office hold schedules and accounts concerning death duty payable upon Chapel Park, and various other properties, described as parts of the estate of Bessie and Thomas Davis Gregory, dated 3rd September 1920 [Ref. B127-6/1964-1966],

Pollard, Thomas & Son, of Barnstaple Street, later Chapel Park, ?-1878-1919-?

See entry for Pollard, Thomas, above.

Pollard, William, location unknown, grocer, merchant, shopkeeper, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Grocers & c., Merchants and Shopkeepers, when address given as East the Water.

Poole, Thomas, location unknown, gardener or seedsman, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Gardeners and Seedsmens, as “Poole Thomas, East the Water”

Pritchard, S. E. of Steamer Wharf, builder's merchant, ?-1889 till 1890-?

In January 1890 extraordinarily high tides caused flooding at East-the-Water, and, amongst other damage, “a quantity of cement at Mr. Pritchard's was spoilt. [“Extraordinary High Tides” Bideford Weekly Gazette 28 January 1890 p4 c6]

Pritchard partnered with Marriot as Marriot & Pritchard, before going bankrupt.

A photograph held by the Appledore Maritime Museum [ref. a1.395 Oldhams Wharf] shows that signs on the end of Steamer Wharf at one time read “Steamers Wharf. Odams” and “Pritchard. Coal, Cement, [unreadable] and General Merchant.”

Pure Chemical Carbon Company, of Nuttaberry, 1911 till 1913?

A company originating in Dewsbury. They produced pure carbon products from Bartlett's waste wood and were on part of the extensive Bartlett site (possibly the part that later housed Kynochs, as plans show a charcoal shed there). The plant contained an engine weighing 300 tons, with a 13 ton flywheel. [“Occasional Notes” North Devon Journal 29 June 1911 p8 c1]

In March 1913 some 500 to 600 bags of charcoal self combusted (it was supposed) within a cast Iron Shed. The Fire Brigade were unable to do more than contain the blaze. [Western Times 18 March 1913 p2 c2] This seems to be the last mention of the company.

Pyke, William, Torrington Street, master mariner, ?-1826 till 1827

In 1824, and auction advertisement identifies him as in possession, together with John Jewell, Schoolmaster, of a property “East the Water, Bideford, adjoining the River Torridge and Torrington Lane-end” [see entry for John Jewell for full transcription and citation]

The will of William Pyke, Master Mariner of Bideford, signed on 13 Aug 1826 and proved on 18 July 1827, makes bequests to his children and requests that “their uncle Mr Jno Jewell shall act as trust for them during their minority.” He left his property to his wife, Mary, for the duration of her widowhood and thereafter to be divided amongst his children Grace, Ben, Mary, & John Pyke [PROB 11/1728/296, Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury]

The notification of the death, in London, of his daughter Grace, refers to him as “Captain Pyke, of Bideford” [North Devon Journal 03 March 1836 p4 c3]

RGB Bideford, Nuttaberry, builder's merchants, 1936 till present

Established in 1850, as Rawle Gammon & Baker, and operating out of Rolle Quay, Barnstaple. The bideford branch was opened in 1936. For details of the present business see http://www.rgbltd.co.uk

Robeda, Nuttaberry, joiners, 1972-present

For details of the present business see www.robeda.co.uk

Rolomatic, Messrs, of Torrington Lane, mechanical engineers, ?-1945-1949

Situated on the site now occupied by Whiteland Engineering. Local tradition maintains that the Rolomatic plant in Torrington Lane made parts for the iconic WW2 Spitfire fighter aircraft. Hence the name given to Spitfire Court

The chair of the Industrial Development Commitee anounced that “it was understood the N.F.S. building at East-the-Water would shortly be made available for Messrs Rolomatic, while another engineering firm had made temporary arrangements to continue production” [“Borough Arms” Western Morning News 17 July 1945 p6 c3] N.F.S. is likely to be National Fire Service (which replaced the Auxillary Fire Service in 1941)

In 1949 they were taken over, when the “business of engineering now carried on by Rolomatic Ltd. (in liquidation), at Torrington Lane, Bideford,” was acquired by the newly registered company of Snow, Deakin, & Co. Ltd. [“New Company” North Devon Journal 17 March 1949 p4 c3]

When Snow Deakin took over, Rolomatic were still considered a manufacturer of aircraft parts [“Dollar Spinner” Western Morning News 27 June 1950 p4 c7]

Redcliffe & Backway, of Industrial Place (Torrington Lane), ?-1893 till 1896-?

See also Backway, John. Later Redcliffe & Son

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as Redcliffe & Backway, potters, in East-the-Water

Advertisement in The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 06 October 1896 [p8 c7] reads "Redcliffe & Backway, Manufacturers of every description of earthenware, Agricultural Drain Pipes, Garden & Seakale Pots and Ovens. A large quantity of the above always in stock. Inspection invited. Price list on application. Address: East-the-Water Pottery, Bideford."

Redcliffe & Son, of Torrington Lane, potters, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Redcliffe & Son, potters, Torrington lane, East-the-Water

Redcliffe, James, of Industrial Place (Torrington Lane), potter, ?-1891-?

Listed in the 1891 Census at 2 Industrial Place. As James Redcliffe, aged 57, potter, an employer, born Monkleigh, with his wife Mary, son John, and mother in Law Eliza Penhorwood. He is listed next to the family of John Backway.

Redcliffe, William, location unknown, marine store dealer, ?-1893-?

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a marine store dealer, in East-the-Water

Renatus Ltd., of Alverdiscott Ind. Estate.,Organ manufacturers, ?-2016-?

Unit 6, Alverdiscott Road Industrial Estate, Bideford, Devon, EX39 4LQ

Formerly Renatus Ltd., of Torrington Street. Developed from Wyvern Classical Organs Ltd. (see below). Web site is http://www.renatus.co.uk.

Restarick's Shipyard, of Barnstaple Street (Brunswick Wharf), shipbuilders, ?- 1878 till 1866

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Rippin, John, location uncertain, smith, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, under Smiths, as “Rippin John, East the Water”

Rolamatic, of Torrington Lane, precision engineering, c1945 till 1956-?

The Western Morning News [“Borough Arms” 17 July 1945 p6 c3] mentions “it is understood the N.F.S. building at East-the-Water would shortly be made available for Messrs. Rolamatic.”

Rook, Alexander, of East-the-Water, smith, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Black and Whitesmiths, as “Rook Alexander, East the Water.”

Rook, Ann, location unknown, shopkeeper or dealer in sundries, ?-1839 till 1844-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Rook Ann, Shopkeeper, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers & dealers in groceries & sundries, when address given as East the Water.

Rook, George, location uncertain, shoemaker, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Rook George, Shoemaker, East the Water”

Rook, James, of Torrington Lane then Barnstaple Street, marine stores dealer, ?-1893 till 1902-?

Listed in Whites Directory of 1878 as Rook James, marine store dealer, of Torrington lane

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a marine store dealer, in East-the-Water

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Rook Jas. marine store dlr. Barnstaple st. East-the-Water

Rook, John, of East-the-Water, smith, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Black and Whitesmiths, as “Rook John, East the Water”

Routley, Frank Ernest, of Barnstaple Street, corn, seed and manure merchant, ?-1913 till 1943?

NDRO hold an item dated 1913, and described as 'Account of Bazeley, Barnes & Bazeleys, solicitors, of Bideford with Mrs Fry, Mr J.H. Maggs & Mr F.E. Routley concerning the sale of Agricultural Wharf etc.' (ref. B611/26)

The North Devon Journal of 08 January 1914 [“Frank E. Routley” p1 c6] carried the following notice: Frank E. Routley. Begs to inform the Public of Barnstaple, Bideford & District, that he is carrying on the Business hitherto conducted by Thos. Fry & Co, at Agricultural Wharf, Bideford, in other premises close by in Barnstaple Street, and will continue to supply the same well known brands of . . . Manure, Cake, Binder Twine; Also Seeds, Flour, and all Kinds of Feeding Stuffs of the very best quality, and trusts to receive their continued support. Barnstaple Street, Bideford.

NDRO hold 26 files dating 1869-1958, under ref. B611, and described as 'Wills, copy wills property documents, letters and accounts relating to the Fry and Routley estates; business records of F.E.Routley and other records'. Their administrative history states 'Frank Ernest Routley, of Bideford, was executor to the will of John Fry, of Shirwell (d. 1912) and also his son in law. Part of John Fry's estate consisted of a principal sum of £3135 lent to his son Thomas Fry and thereafter owing to Frank Ernest Routley and others. In 1915, Frank Ernest Routley received various goods and stock belonging to Thomas Fry in his business as merchant and miller at the Agricultural Wharf, Bideford, in order to release Thomas Fry from that particular portion of his mortgage debts. By the end of 1915 Frank Ernest Routley had purchased the entire business. . . . It is possible that Frank Ernest Routley's new business as corn, seed, wool and manure merchant only lasted until 1943. He appears to have lived at various addresses, mostly in East-the-Water, Bideford, at least until 1958.'

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a corn, seed & manure merchant, in Barnstaple Street

Corn, seed, wool and manure merchant.

Possibly closed in 1943 (business records at NDRO, ref. B611)

Routley lived in various of the larger properties in East the Water (and is buried in East the Water cemetery).

The papers of Frank E Routley, corn, seed, wool and manure merchant, Bideford (accounts, deeds, solicitors bills and Routley and Fry family wills 1869-1954) were acquired by North Devon Record's Office in 2001 (ref. 611/0)

Sanders, Fanny Elizabeth (Mrs), of Chudleigh Villa, Nursing Home Proprietor, ?-1919-?

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as operating a nursing home, at Chudleigh Villa, East the Water

Sargent & Co. Ltd., of Barnstaple Street, ? till 1964

On 1 June 1836 Fulford, Trump's & Co. (see entry above) acquired all of the issued share capital of “Sargent & Co. Ltd., of Horabridge.” [“Fulford, Trump's and Co. Ltd.” North Devon Journal 21 December 1937 p7 c6]

The company was operated as one of the many wholly owned subsidiaries of Fulford, Trump's & Co.

At an extraordinary general meeting, on 29 Jun 1964, of the company Sargent & Co., Ltd., held at 20 Barnstaple Street, and chaired by H. N. Fulford., the company was voluntarily wound up with A. D. Slade of 20 Barnstaple Street appointed as Liquidator. [The London Gazette, 7 July 1964. Pg 5862]

Sincombe, Patience, location unknown, potter, ?-1733-?

In the quarter session books for 1733 Patience Sincombe is fined 20 shillings for endangering a nearby house through the great quantity of furze lain beside her kiln, East-the-Water. [Rogers, Notes on Bideford Vol. 1 Pg. 122]

Shapland, Misses, of Barnstaple Street, Dyer's Agents, ?-1837-?

The Misses. Shapland, of Barnstaple Street, Bideford, received orders for a dyeing establishment in Barnstaple. [North Devon Journal 04 May 1837, p1 c1]

Short, John, of Industrial Place (Torrington Lane), Monumental Mason, ?-1919-?

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a monumental mason, at Industrial Place, East the Water.

Business may be related to J Short & Son, based, in 2016, at 36 Abbotsham Road.

Shutt, F, of Barnstaple Street, Joiner, Cabinet Maker, Upholsterer and Undertaker, ?-1904-?

The Bideford Weekly Gazette for 17 May 1904 ["Business Announcements." p4 c6] carried the following advertisement: "9, Barnstaple Street, Bideford. F. Shutt, Joiner, Cabinet Maker, Upholsterer and Undertaker. Chairs and Couches Re-covered and made equal to new. Wood Turner. French Polisher."

A month later an advertisement made it clear that F. Shutt had acquired an outlet at 12, Richmond Terrace, Meddon St., but that his workshop was still in Barnstaple Street. [Bideford Weekly Gazette, 21 Jun 1904, p4 c4]

On 1891 Census one Thomas Shutt (aged 53), Hotel waiter, is at 9 Barnstaple Street, as head of a family, but with no sign of an F Shutt. On the 1901 Census Thom's Shutt (aged 62), of 9 Barnstaple Street, gives his occupation as “Joiner Carp, own account” The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 14 May 1889 [p4 c2] carried an auction advertisement in which Lot 1. was described as "All that excellent Shop and Premises, No. 9 Barnstaple-street, now in the occupation of Mr Thomas Shute.”

It is likely that Thomas Shutt is related to F. Shutt, but the nature of that relationship has yet to be identified.

Smale, R. G., at 18 Barnstaple Street, Fruiterer and General Stores, ?-1947-?

In October 1947, no. 18 Barnstaple Street was offered for auction, at which time it was described as a shop and dwelling house, with a frontage of 17 ft onto Barnstaple Street and a separate side entrance to the house. It was in the possession of “Mr. R. G. Smale, Fruiterer and General Stores,” but was offered with vacant possession of the whole premises. [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 09 October 1947 p1 c6]

Smith, W. H. & Son, at the Railway Station, Stationers, ?-1902 till 1919-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Smith W. H. & Son, booksellers & news agents, Railway station, East-the-Water

On the announcement of his death, in 1932, it was stated that Mr. J. H. Osborne, a well known public figure in Bideford, a resident of East-the-Water, and former manager of W.H. Smiths at the Railway Station, had retired about 30 years previous (i.e. about 1902) [Western Times 30 Dec 1932, p6 c3]

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a newsagent, at Bideford railway station, East the Water


[The well known chain of WH Smith originated in London, but by this time already had newsagent's outlets on many stations.]

Snow, Deakin, & Co. Ltd., of Torrington Lane, precision engineers, 1949-?

business of engineering now carried on by Rolomatic Ltd. (in liquidation), at Torrington Lane, Bideford,” was aquired by the newly registered company of Snow, Deakin, & Co. Ltd. [“New Company” North Devon Journal 17 March 1949 p4 c3]

Squire .Francis, of Barnstaple Street, monumental mason, ?-1870-c1890

In 1870, testifying to the railway compensation case, he said his premises were near the New London Inn ("Daniel's house") – Bideford Gazette [consult page image for details]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a monumental mason. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Also listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory was John Squire “of S. & Son.” Home address given as Springfield Terrace. The location of John's home suggests that he was the son of Francis Squire, whose business was near to Springfield Terrace.

In 1887 Squire's Marble Works, East-the-Water advertised for an apprentice [“APPRENTICE WANTED” Bideford Weekly Gazette 29 March 1887 p4 c1]

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 15 April 1890 carried a notice for an executors auction for the "Stock-in-Trade, Working Plant, Household Furniture, Pony, Spring Trap, Cart, Butt, Harness, etc. late the property of the late Mr. Francis Squire, stonemason, deceased, Barnstaple Street, Bideford.--As the premises are sold." The auction, to be held on 21 April 1890 included "Marble crosses, with bases; Carved and Plain Marble Headstones, Rustic Marble Base; Portland, Forest of Dean, and Slate Headstones; quantity of Sicilian Marble, from 1 to 7 inches ; quantity of Block Box Ground. 5ft. 6 in. x 2ft. 6 in. ; Quantity of Block Code Hill, 7ft. x 4ft.; Freestone, Bath Brick, Marland do., Roofing Tiles, Garden do., Chimney Tops, Drain Pipes, Closet Pans, Troughs, &c." also "Working Plant-- Saws, Mortar Mill, Wheel-barrow, Hand do., Ropes, Pulleys, Blocks, Scaffold Planks, Tressels [sic], 32 bar ladder, 26 bar do., 15 do., 12 do., 10 do., excellent pony. 8 years old, good in all work; Trap, Harness, Saddle, Chaffcutter, etc. etc." also "HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. Rosewood Piano. Mahogany and Walnut Sitting and Bedroom Furniture. Iron Bedsteads. Marble-top Washstands, Chests of Draws, Kitchen Requisites, & c."

On 29 Jul 1890 The Bideford Weekly Gazette carried a notice [p4 c6] "J. E. Gabriel, (Manager of the late Mr. F. Squire's Monumental Mason's Business, East-the-Water, Bideford), Begs to announce that he has commenced Business at Clarence Wharf, East-the-Water, Bideford. Private Residence: Barnstaple Street. All work at most Moderate Charges. Best Workmanship."

On Jan 18 1902 Harriet, widow of Robert Squire, died, aged 79, at Springfield Cottage, East-the-Water [North Devon Journal 23 January 1902 p8 c7] The cottage looks older than the terrace, so may be the site of the Squire family in earlier years.

Squire & Son (see Squire, Francis)

Starkey, Knight & Ford Limited, of Barnstaple Street, brewers, ?-1902 till 1919-?

Starkey and Knight was formed in Nov 1887 through the merger of two established Somerset brewers, with plans to expand. In 1895 they took over Ford's of Tiverton. For more detail see the article http://boakandbailey.com/2013/05/starkey-knight-ford/ [“Boak & Bailey's Beer Blog: Starkey, Knight & Ford” Boak & Bailey, 5 May 2013. Accessed: 5 Jul 2016]

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Starkey, Knight & Ford Lim. brewers; stores, East-theWater

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as brewers, with their store in Barnstable Street.

Stanbury, Thomas, location unknown, coal merchant, ?-1844 till 1853-?

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Coal Merchants, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Coalmerchants and dealers, when address given as East the Water.

Steam Packet Co., Clarence Wharf,

Mr. Geo Heard, in testimony to a case, stated that a store that he owned on Clarence Wharf was used by “The Steam Packet Co.” to storing manures from 1860 until 1865 [“Bideford Borough Magistrates” Bideford Weekly Gazette 29 April 1884 p5 c2]

Stevens, Reginald Jas., of Torrington Lane, fish frier, ?-1944-?

Older residents recall that Steven's fish and chip shop was located opposite the northern end of Torridge Mount and had a high marble counter.

Western Morning News 12 April 1944 [“Billingsgate Firm” p5 c3], dealing with fish offences, reported “Another case concerned selling to Reginald Jas. Stevens, fish frier [sic], of Bideford, 2½ stone of hake. Pile, who also ran a retail shop, received a quantity of hake from Milford Haven to use in his shop, and to oblige Stevens he passed some on to him at an addition of 3d. a stone, to have obtained which Pile should have had a wholesale licences, which he did not hold.”

Stoneman, George, of 25 Brookside Street, ?-1919-?

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a shopkeeper, at 25 Brookside Street, East-the-Water.

Strange, George, of Barnstaple Street, merchant, 18th C.

In c. 1717 a plan of Bideford marks a quay about half way along Barnstaple Street as “Strange's Key.” The Bridge Trust's folio of plans from 1745 shows a quay, in a similar position, occupied by one George Strange. The George Strange who used this quay is therefore likely to a prominent member of Bideford society.

“Strange's Key” may, in 1717, have been used by other members of the Strange family, for the name John Strange is also associated with Newfoundland fishing (see below).

A list of wills for the surname STRANGE, and its derivatives [Heather Olsen and Richard Carruthers-Zurowski “Prerogative Court of Canturbury [sic] Wills Index From 1610 to 1847”, Online Accessed:8 Mar 2017] suggests that, during the 18th C., only two individuals, with enough property for their wills to be proved at Canterbury, went by the name George Strange, probate was as follows:

The corresponding entry in the burial registers for Bideford for 20 October 1747 is for a “Mr George Strange Alderman,” which fell just weeks after the burial, on October 2nd, of “Dorothy the Wife of Mr George Strange”

A George Strange junr was buried in 1733, at Bideford, but he is likely to be the George Strange junr baptised in 1726, at Bideford.

Probate was also granted in 1736 for an individual named George Strange of Bideford, but without an occupation. As his will was proved in the Court of the Archdeaconry of Barnstaple, he did not leave a significant material estate (so is less likely to be the occupant of quay.

The latter Will also has Bideford connections, as it appears to have a “Will annexed of Goods Chattels and Credits of Charles Strange late of Bideford in the County of Devon but in the Parish of Saint Mary Hill London granted to Mary Strang Widow,” it also names his mother as “Mary Strange at Appledore,” and a bequest of “one half or moiety of a Plantation situate at Terpassey in Newfound Land” [Ros Dunning transcriber “The Will of George Strange of Flushing, 1763” National Archives Ref: PROB 11/988/86]

On 6 September 1688 the registers of Bideford record the marriage of “Mr. George Strange and Dorrathe Bucke” Dorothy was the sister of George Buck, the merchant and one-time mayor of Bideford. George Buck had sons John (also a Mayor of Bideford), Lewis, and William.

In 1695 George Strange was Mayor of Bideford [W. H. Rogers. “Notes on Bideford” Bideford Copy, 3:105]

In 1704 George Strange was Mayor of Bideford [W. H. Rogers. “Notes on Bideford” Bideford Copy, 3:105]

On 10 July 1705, a petition, to Lords of trade, from the Bideford merchants George Strange, John Buck, William Buck, Dan Darrault, Thomas Smith, Peter Wellington, Power Jr, John Smith (Bideford), sought to keep New England ships from carrying any inhabitants or servants without giving notice. [Colonial Records Office relating to Newfoundland. CO 194/3 (Reel B207) 274]

On 21 Jan 1706 [1706/7] one George Strange led various merchants of Bideford (including one John Strange) in petitioning the Board of Trade, for protection of their fishing interests on voyages to Ferryland and adjacent parts of Newfoundland, Ferryland having suffered from French attacks three times in 1705 [P.E. Pope transcriber. “George Strange, et al. [Merchants of Bideford]; 21 January, 1706” from Great Britain, PRO, Colonial Office, CO 194/3 (100), 363. Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Online http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/exploration/petition-george-strange-1706.php Accessed 8 Mar 2017]. As early as 1676 there had been a George Strange associated with Ferryland, but, at that time, as master of the Delight of Bideford, which was fishing there. [“Ferryland names Q-T” Heritage Newfoundland & Labradour. Online:http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/exploration/ferryland-names-q-t.php Accessed: 12 March 2017]

In 1710, according to a record at the National Archives [E190/983/7 (THE PORT OF BARNSTAPLE. Port: BARNSTAPLE Official: Controller Overseas)] George Strange helped John Slee to emigrate (or to be transported) - “Shipper by the Greyhound of Bideford, Mr. John Slee, bound from Bideford for Carolina: George Strange”

In 1713 George Strange was Mayor of Bideford [W. H. Rogers. “Notes on Bideford” Bideford Copy, 3:105]

In 1714 depositions were taken in Bideford, for a case in chancery between Henry Chope gent, of Bideford, Devon, as plaintiff, and defendants: George Strange merchant, of Bideford, Devon, guardian, John Rowe block maker, of Bideford, Devon, Thomas Chope the younger infant, of Bideford, Devon. The case concerned a property in High Street, Bideford, leased (probably for the benefit of Thomas Chope), but for which Chope the elder had bought the freehold. [National Archives catalogue Ref. C 6/389/27]

In c 1717 “Strange's Key” appears on a plan of Bideford, located on Barnstaple Street.

On Jan 15 1719 one George Strange of Bideford, Esq., married Dorothy Ivy [sic=Ivie], of Bideford, at Horewood, Devon. This was George Strange junr.

On 25th Sept 1718, Richard Score & Co., of Barnstaple and Bideford, suffered a loss of £2,762 & 10s, when the galley Neptune was seized by the Spaniards at Corunna, on her voyage their “from Bideford and Newfoundland”. The galley had been built at Boston N.E. for Richard Score, “Mr. George Strange of Bideford and Mr. Pitt of New England etc.” ['America and West Indies: July 1730, 11-20', in Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies: Volume 37, 1730, ed. Cecil Headlam and Arthur Percival Newton (London, 1937), pp. 188-200. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/colonial/america-west-indies/vol37/pp188-200 [accessed 9 March 2017].

In 1720 the Bideford based “merchants for divers good causes and considerations,” John Buck and George Buck and George Strange, jointly appointed an attorney, Lambert Wilmer of Chester River, Maryland, to look after their interests in Kent County, Maryland, an area with which the Buck family of Bideford had established a close relationship, through both transporting convicts there, and buying property in the area [Gwenda Morgan, Peter Rushton. Eighteenth-Century Criminal Transportation. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Pg 31] In the 1720s and 1730s the Buck family of Bideford were major contractors for criminal transportation to America [Morgan & Rushton, 2004, Pg 21]

In 1730 George Strange of Bideford, merchant and George Buck of Bideford, merchant, are amongst those trusted with the property that was to be used by Bideford Grammar School. [North Devon Record Office (South West Heritage Trust) BBT-1/3]

On 2 April 1745 George Strange, as “Executor of his late Father George Strange, deceased” was named as one of the partners with Richard Score, in a petition (which also came from John Buck, as executor of George Buck, and his partners) seeking relief for their losses at the hands of Spaniards in 1718 [Journals of the House of Commons, Vol 24.1745, pg 848] The petition does not mention where these merchants are from, but George Buck was a well known former Mayor of Bideford, and this petition was followed by an almost identical one from “William Allen of Bideford, merchant” George Buck was also George Strange's brother-in-law.

An indenture dated 19 April 1721, involving land for the support of Bideford Grammar School includes “George Strange and five others as the first part, William Strange and William Tallamy, of the second part, and George Strange, Junior, then Mayor of Bideford, and eleven others, of the third part” [“The Endowed Grammar School” North Devon Journal 09 September 1858 p6 c1] This George Strange junr is likely to be George Strange's son, as he appears as “junr” in baptismal records for his children at this period.

In 1721 depositions were taken in Bideford, for a chancery case between “George Strange, Merchant,” as plaintiff, and Charles Jones and Margery his wife, Henry Badcock and Parthesia his wife, as defendants. [National Archives Catalogue. Ref. C 11/2760/20]

In 1721 a case took place in chancery, between plaintiff George Strange, merchant of Bideford, Devon. and defendants Philip Hawkins and John Hawkins. [National Archives Catalogue. Ref. C C 11/2536/59]

A 1728 case in chancery saw “George Strange, merchant of Brideford, Devon.” as plaintiff, and John Jarman as defendant. [National Archives Catalogue. Ref C 11/682/8]

A transaction in 1746 involving property at Blegburry, Hartland, had, as one party, George Strange of Bideford, merchant [North Devon Record Office (South West Heritage Trust) 956 M/T39].

In 1745 George Strange is marked as the occupant of a quay in Barnstaple Street, on a plan of the lands of the Bideford Bridge Trust.

A further transaction, for Blegbury, Hartland, in 1849 involved “William Strange merchant and John Marks apothecary both of Bideford, executors in trust of the will of George Strange late of Bideford, merchant, deceased” [North Devon Record Office (South West Heritage Trust) 956 M/T40] Thus George Strange of Bideford, merchant, died between 1746 and 1749 (incl.). The 1745 plan of the Bridge Trust Lands shows the land immediately to the south of that of George Strange as belonging to “John Marks, Gent.” This appears likely to be the John Marks, merchant, of Bideford, the father of the John Marks whom John Watkins' Essay calls “Mr. John Marks, an eminent surgeon and apothecary at Bideford,” and to whom he says John Shebbear was apprenticed. John Marks senr's wife appears to have been George Strange's Aunt Sarah, as, on Jan 6 1689, a couple by the names Jno. Marks and Sarah Strange, both of Bideford, were married at Horwood [“Our Archæological Corner” North Devon Journal 2 June 1881 p6 c1]

Rogers notes that a George Strange was engaged in the Irish and Leghorn trade [W. H. Rogers. “Notes on Bideford” Bideford Copy, 2:5]

John Strange, location uncertain, early 17th C

John Strange, Bideford's Mayor during Bideford's outbreak of plague, is included here as there is a likely connection with the quay used by George Strange in 1745 (one appearing to be the grandson of the other). Initial exploration of the genealogy of the Strange family of Bideford suggests that George Strange (1664-1747) was the son of George Strange (1634-) who married Joane, the daughter of William Nottell (one time mayor of Barnstaple, but deceased by the time of her marriage). George Strange (1634-) was the son of John Strange, the Mayor.

Some websites suggest , in the vaguest of terms, that this individual was involved in the Newfoundland trade, but I have yet to find concrete evidence of that. The John Strange who appears as ship's master in some records from the early 18th C. is clearly a different individual. The name Strange is, however, associated with the Newfoundland fishery in 1621, when a ship of Barnstaple, owned by Strange, and with Yawe as master, is mentioned. [“Ferryland names U-Z” Heritage Newfoundland & Labradour. Online:http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/exploration/ferryland-names-u-z.php Accessed: 12 March 2017].

During this early period “Barnstaple Water” and the port of Barnstaple included Bideford, so, whilst references to ships of Bideford are unambiguous as to their origin, references to ships of Barnstaple are not (besides, in that period, many Barnstaple ships, too big to pass easily up the Taw, operated out of the pool of Appledore, transferring loads to smaller vessels bound for Barnstaple itself).

John Strange, location uncertain, merchant, early 18th C

This John Strange is included here as he may be linked to the Strange's that used Strange's quay on Barnstaple Street. That link has yet to be proven, but they appear to be in the same line of business. Genealogical sources seem to be a bit sketchy, possibly down to the Civil War and its aftermath.

One John Strange was the master of the Ann of Barnstaple, when she fished at Ferryland in 1698, and at Ferryland or Aquefort in 1699 [“Ferryland names Q-T” Heritage Newfoundland & Labradour. Online:http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/exploration/ferryland-names-q-t.php Accessed: 12 March 2017]

On 21 Jan 1706 [1706/7] one John Strange appeared on a petition, led by George Strange, from various merchants of Bideford, to appeal to the Board of Trade for protection of their fishing interests on voyages to Ferryland and adjacent parts of Newfoundland. [P.E. Pope transcriber. “George Strange, et al. [Merchants of Bideford]; 21 January, 1706” from Great Britain, PRO, Colonial Office, CO 194/3 (100), 363. Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Online http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/exploration/petition-george-strange-1706.php Accessed 8 Mar 2017].

In 1708 John Strange was with the Diamond of Bideford, as master, when she fished at Ferryland. [“Ferryland names Q-T” Heritage Newfoundland & Labradour. Online:http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/exploration/ferryland-names-q-t.php Accessed: 12 March 2017]

Symons, Alfred Edward, of Torridge Mount, Insurance Agent, ?-1902-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Symons Alfred Edward, insurance agent, Torridge mount, East-the-Water

Symons, Sarah, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers, when address given as East the Water.

Symons William, location unknown, shopkeeper, ?-1839 till 1844-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Symons William, Shopkeeper, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers & dealers in groceries & sundries, when address given as East the Water.

Swain, John, of Barnstaple Street, earthenware manufacturer, ?-1822 till 1830-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Earthenware Manufacturers. Address given as East the Water.

Rogers notes that John Swaine was once the tenant at a pottery “near the Ship-on-Launch” that was owned by Thomas Goss. [Wm. Henry Rogers Notes on Bideford. 3 vols. Typed manuscript. c1920-40. Chope Collection, Bideford Public Library. Vol 1, Pg 79] He goes on to state that Thomas Isaac owned this property in 1825, and that it disappeared in 1826. Rogers further reported that Jane Willcock owned a pottery in East-the-Water, still working in 1828, and let successively to Simon Madge, _ Cortis, and Swain and Pluckey (or Plucknett) [Op. cit.].

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Earthenware Manfctrs, as “Swain John, East the Water”

Swain, John, of Barnstaple Street, bootmaker, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory as a bootmaker. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Tapp, Thomas, bark merchant, Clarence Wharf, ?-?

Individual to whom the construction of the original Clarence Wharf is attributed.

[There may be some connection to the leather-working Tapp family of South Molton, but this has yet to be followed up]

Taylor, C., location unknown, builder and innkeeper, ?-1925-?

Mentioned in the Western times of 30 October 1925, as “C. Taylor, builder and innkeeper, East-the-Water” a candidate in the council elections. [“Municipal Elections” Western Times 30 October 1925 p7 c3]

Taylor, Frank, of Barnstaple Street, shopkeeper, ?-1919-?

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a shopkeeper, trading at 28 Barnstaple Street

Taylor, William, of Cross Park, shipbuilder, ?-1803 till 1830-?

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Thorne, Richard, location uncertain, shopkeeper, ?-1850-1853-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers, when address given as East the Water.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers & Dealers in Groceries & Sundries, when address given as East the Water.

Thorne, William, of Torrington Lane?

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Shopkeepers & Dealers in Groceries & Sundries, when address given as East the Water.

Listed on 1881 Census as William Thorne (unmarried), aged 34, shopkeeper (groceries etc), born Bideford; at 4 Torrington Lane, in his sister-in-law's house, whilst 3 Torrington Lane is listed as “Torrington Stores & etc”

Trewin, of Clarence Wharf, manure merchant, 1865-?

Mr. Geo Heard, in testimony to a case, stated that a store that he owned on Clarence Wharf was used by “Mr. Trewin, of West Putford,” to storing manures from 1865 until he let them to the defendant,Messrs. W. and H. M. Goulding and Sons, manure merchants, of Dublin & Cork.” The lease must have been signed prior to the case, so before February 1884. Mr Trewin, of West Putford, is possibly the same individual as the Mr. T. Trewin named in the case, as the company agent for Goulding and Son. [“Bideford Borough Magistrates” Bideford Weekly Gazette 29 April 1884 p5 c2]

Triggs, William, location uncertain, beer retailer, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Triggs William, Beer retailer, East the Water”

Tucker, Henry, Brunswick Wharf, shipbuilder and maltster, ?-1822-1844-?

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Tucker, John, of Queen's Wharf, corn merchant, ?-1887 till 1893-?

The North Devon Journal of 20 January 1887 [p7 c1-2] carries the account of a dispute between the owner of Queen's Wharf, George Heard, and a Mr. Tucker, corn merchant, who was leasing it. See details for George Heard, merchant.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as a corn & seed merchant, in East-the-Water

Tucker, John & Son, of Potter's Lane, earthenware manufacturer, ?-1839 till 1844-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Tucker John, Potter, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Earthenware manufacturers, when address given as East the Water.

[Tucker appears to have been based in Potters lane, i.e. near the Torrington Lane clay-pit]

Turner, James, location uncertain, blacksmith, ?-1839-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Turner James, Blacksmith, East the Water”

Turner, William, location uncertain, store holder, ?-1869-?

In 1869 “Thomas Cole, a labourer in the employ of Mr William Turner, was brought up in custody for stealing one bag of guano, the property of his employer.--Mr Turner said that he occupied manure stores, East-the-Water, and had 8 or 9 tons of guano stored there at present.” [Borough Petty Sessions” North Devon Journal 22 April 1869 p8 c3]

Turner, William, of Torrington Street, boot maker, ?-1902 till 1919-?

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Turner Wm. boot repairer, Torrington st. East-the-Water

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a boot maker, based in Torrington Street

Vanstone, J. T., near Chudleigh Villas, timber yard, ?-20th C.-?

Located near to Chudleigh Villas [anecdotal]

The North Devon Journal of 17 August 1933 reported [“Pretty Northam Wedding” p7 c] on the wedding of “Mr. Edward J. Vanstone, younger son of Mr. & Mrs. J. T. Vanstone, of Chudleigh Saw Mills, Bideford” to one Margaret M. Richards.

Able Seaman C. W. Vanstone, of 5 Grenville Terrace, East-the-Water, son of Mr. & Mrs. J. T. Vanstone, of Park Cottage, East-the-Water, was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal in 1942, at age 41. He joined the Royal Navy aged 17, then after the war ended he served for 12 years, before joining the reserve, from which time, until he was called up again in 1939, he worked with his father, a timber merchant. [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 30 July 1942 p5 c4]

Vicary, James, of Barnstaple Street, blacksmith & shipsmith, ?-1839 till 1853-?

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Vicary James, Blacksmith, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Black and whitesmiths (with a parenthetical comment that he was also a shipsmith), when address given as East the Water.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Black & Whitesmiths (with a parenthetical comment that he was also a shipsmith), when address given as East the Water.

"Dwelling House. Mrs. Vickery, East-the-water" is amongst several properties offered for sale by Mr. F. Lee ["Sales Auction by Mr. F. LEE. " Bideford Weekly Gazette 10 September 1861 p1 c3]

Waters, Mary, location uncertain, milliner, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Milliners & c. when address given as East the Water.

Waters, Thomas, of Cross Park, shipbuilder, ?-1850-?

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Waters, William, location uncertain, shipbuilder, mid 19th C.

For detail of this individual see the separate document Vessels built or refitted in East-the-Water.

Watts, Henry, location unknown, beerhouse keeper, ?-1850-?

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Beerhouses, when address given as East the Water.

Way, John & Son, Barnstaple Street, coal dealer, ?-1886 till 1960s-?

Way's coal-yard was immediately to the south of Portland House, and between that and the Ship-on-Launch (now Crofts). Way lived on the premises [anecdotal, Derek Barnes, 6 Jun 2016].

On 16 Feb 1886 the Bideford Weekly Gazette [p1 c3] carried and advertisement for Co-operative flour, barley meal, maize meal, and prime American mixed maize, citing “For delivery, apply to J. Way, Canada Wharf, Bideford. Alfred How & Co.” In this transaction Mr. Way appears to have been acting as a haulier.

The North Devon Gazette of 11 October 1887 [p4 c3], carried an advert for “Coal. Coal. Fire-Wood Lightings. Best Forest of Dean Red-Ash House Coal, 16s. per Ton, delivered. Fire lightings (all split), 1/- per cwt Delivered. John Way, Clarence Wharf, East-the-Water, Bideford.”

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as Way John, coal dealer, East-the-Water.

On Oct 23rd 1894 a son was born to the wife of John Way, of Clarance Yard, East-the-Water, Bideford [“Births” Bideford Weekly Gazette 30 October 1894 p5 c6]

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Way John, coal mer. Barnstaple st. East-the-Water

In 1905 “Messrs. John Way” tender to supply coal to Bideford Guardians for the next six months. They lost out to the tender from I. Baker and Son. [“Bideford Guardians” Bideford Weekly Gazette 03 October 1905 p8 c5]

The North Devon Journal of 17 February 1910 [“Bideford” p8 c5] announced the death and burial, after a lingering illness, of “Mr John Way, coal merchant,” . . . “who was well known and highly respected.” His coffin was borne by “six employees of the firm Messrs. F. Ebsworthy, C. Shortridge, E. Taylor, J. Pook, J. Osbourne, and H. Blackmore.” The employees were presumably from John Way and Son, but the article failed to spell that out. Amongst the chief mourners were his five sons, “Willie, Charlie, Stanley, Ronald, and Reggie.”

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as a coal merchants, trading in Barnstaple Street.

In the Western Times of 16 November 1934 [“Bideford Trade Improvement” p6 c3] it was reported 'In an application by Mr. R. Way, coal merchant, of Bideford, for a variation of a “B” license, an increase from nine miles radius to thirty miles being asked for, Mr. T. Oerton said in the Bideford district things had been improving since the beginning of this year, and Mr. Way found that he was more and more employed by builders.'

In 1953 an advertisement appeared in Major Ascott's notes [W. Ascott, Random Notes on Old Bideford and District. Bideford: Gazette, 1953, advertisements on the back pages]: “John Way & Son (North Devon Farmer's Ltd.) Barnstaple Street, Bideford. E. for Best Quality House Coals.”

Local fisherman, Derek Barnes recalls Way's operating in the 1960s.

Western Counties Agricultural Co-operative Association Limited, of Barnstaple Street, 1893 till 1919-?

The Western Counties Co-operative Association had a substantial store on Victoria Wharf and a smaller building on Railway Wharf (which seems to have served, at least initially, as their offices.

The association was founded in 1879 (in Plymouth?).

On 29th July 1893 the Exeter Flying Post (“Bideford Local Board” p2 c7) carried a note that the Bideford Local Board had received a letter, from the Board of Trade, “with respect to the proposed wharf on the east side of the Torridge for the Agricultural Co-operative Society,” which they referred to the full committee.

On the 26 Oct 1893 the North Devon Journal [Bideford Local Board” p3 c1] reported that The Board of Trade wrote that they had declined to allow the Western Agricultural Association [sic] to take the proposed wharf as far into the river as they had asked, but had given permission for the wharf to come on a line with Mr Fry's wharf, which must be regarded as the Board of Trade line.” The exact location of Mr. Fry's wharf, which he called Agricultural Wharf, is somewhat unclear. It was either on the site eventually occupied by the Western Counties Agricultural Co-Operative Association's stores, or possibly just to the south of that, between it and Foundry Cottages.

In September 1893 the Bideford Weekly Gazette [“To Builders” 12 September 1893 p5 c1] published a notice inviting tenders for the 'ERECTION OF WAREHOUSES at Bideford, for the “Western Counties' Agricultural Co-operative Association, Limited,”' the plans were available for inspection at the company's “Offices, Railway Wharf, Bideford, on or after 4th Inst.” With tenders to be submitted “not later than the 16th Inst.” The notice was signed “W. T. M. Mear, Architect and Surveyor” and dated “Wadebridge, Sept. 2nd, 1893.”

In Feb 1896 a councillor expressed concern about the state of the layers, East-the-Water, which was such that a loaded vessel had recently been unable to reach the Western Counties Agricultural Association's quay to unload. [“East-the-Water Wharves” Bideford Weekly Gazette 11 February 1896 p5 c2]

The North Devon Journal of 26 October 1893 [Bideford Local Board” p3 c1] reported that “The Board of Trade wrote that they had declined to allow the Western Agricultural Association to take the proposed wharf as far into the river as they had asked, but had given permission for the wharf to come on a line with Mr Fry's wharf, which must be regarded as the Board of Trade line.

The Western Times of 9 Nov 1894 reported that a public dinner was given at the Bideford Music Hall to celebrate the opening of the new stores in Bideford of the Western [sic, title refers to Counties] Agricultural Co-operative Association.

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Western Counties Agricultural Co-operative Association Limited (Wallace Allen Oatey, branch manager), Railway wharf, Barnstaple street

Advertisement for a brochure "BENTALL'S MOWING MACHINES Single & Double Furrow Ploughs &c. 10pp., oblong 8vo, attractive illustrated paper wraps. Staples rusted so pages loose. Attractive illustrations. Printed in blue. April 1906." . . . "Sold by The Western Counties Agricultural Co-Operative Assoc., Bideford." [Lesley Aitchison's - Catalogue 58. http://www.localhistory.co.uk/la/cats/rodd.htm accessed 8/4/2016]

The North Devon Journal of 12 September 1912 [p2 c3] records a foreign fore-an-aft rigged capsizing of Victoria Wharf, possibly through touching the bottom.

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as Western Counties Agricultural Co-operative Association Limited, Victoria Wharf, Barnstaple Street.

The Western Morning News of 20 August 1923 [p1 c4] invited tenders for the purchase of Foden Stem Wagon, which could be inspected at “Western Counties Agricultural Co-operative Association, Victoria Wharf, Bideford.”

The Western Morning News of 09 January 1943 [“Lost!-every year” p3 c7] carried an advertisement for carbonate of lime, giving its district agent as “Western Counties Co-operative Association Ltd. Victoria Wharf, Bideford.

They also had branches in Plymouth and Bristol. [Lesley Aitchison's - Catalogue 58. http://www.localhistory.co.uk/la/cats/rodd.htm accessed 8/4/2016]

Bideford sidings served the Association with an industrial line. More information is available in Branch Lines to Torrington, Middleton Press, ISBN: 978 1 873793 37 4 / index 35 [http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/mickssrsource/srmiddgazet/bybooklistv2.html Accessed 8/4/2016]

Willcock, John, of Colonial House, timber and wine merchant, 1784-1800

A former Alderman of Bideford, he built Woodtown House (5 miles west of Bideford) as his country residence. He purchased Colonial House from John Davie (grandson of the builder) in 1784. The Gentleman's Magazine for July to December 1825 [John Nichols. London. pg 285 ]carries the obituary “Aug. 15. Aged 90, John Willcock, esq. of Woodtown, many years an Alderman of Bideford, and a respectable merchant there.”

“he lived in Colonial House from 1784 until 1800. When he let it to his son, another John, until his death in 1807.” [“The Royal Hotel; A Brief History of the Royal Hotel” The Royal Hotel pg4]

Willcock, John junr., of Colonial House, timber and wine merchant, 1800-1807

After the death of John Willcock junr. in 1807, his heirs attempted, in 1812, to lease Colonial House and its associated quay as a going business concern. The tenant would have benefited from the timber and wine associated with the business. It is unclear whether the lease was ever taken up, but the advertisement supports the idea that John was continuing his father's business, with Colonial House as his base. Probate was granted on the will of John Willcock the younger, of Bideford, Merchant, in 1813 at the Court of the Archdeaconry of Barnstaple. [Devon Wills Index. Vol. 36].His will looks to be available at Devon Heritage Centre,doc ref. W 839. An abstract may also be available there in Murray, Oswyn (comp.) Oswyn Murray collection of wills, abt. 1600-1800.

Willcock, Mrs., of Barnstaple Street, timber merchant, ?-1828-?

The North Devon Journal of 09 October 1828 [“Norway Timber, Deals, &c.” Barnstaple, p1 c4] carried the following notice “Just imported, in the Brig William and Henry, a Cargo of Prime Norway Deals, Deal Ends, Balks, Battens, Spars, Oars, Lathwood, and Treenails, And now Selling by Capt. Jenkin, the owner, at Mrs. Willcock's Wharf, East-the-Water, Bideford. Also the above Brig William and Henry, is to be Sold by Private Contract, about Eleven years of age, Copper Bottomed, in good condition, and sails very fast, Registered Tonnage 123 75-91. For further particulars enquire of Capt. Jenkin, Bideford, or Mr. Popham, Sailmaker, Appledore. October 8th, 1828.

Willcock, Thos. John, location unknown, merchant, ?-1830-?

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Merchants, as “Willcock Thos. John, East the Water”

Willcocks and Sons, Messrs. John, timber merchants, ?-1813-?

See entry for John Willcock above

To be SOLD by Auction, without reserve, in small lots, on Monday the Seventeenth day of this instant May, (and not on the 19th, as before advertised,) at Bull Hill, in Bideford, Devon. The CARGO of the Barque FOUR FRIENDS; consisting of 463 PIECES of AMERICAN PINE LOGS, 28 PIECES of AMERICAN BLACK BIRCH; and 6 Fathoms of 4 feet LATH WOOD.
The sale to bein precisely by eleven o'clock in the fore-noon. Further particulars may be known, by application, of Messes. John Willcocks and Sons, Bideford, 1st May, 1813.” [“
American Timber” Trewman's Exeter Flying Post 13 May 1813 pg2 c2]

Woolf, J. of Barnstaple Street, rabbit, hen, and moleskin dealer, ?-1907 till 1909-?

In 1902 a Mrs Woolf was at the Terminus Inn and she may be related.

On 26 Mar 1907 the Bideford Weekly Gazette carried the following advertisement: "100 Fat, Heavy, OLD HENS WANTED daily; best price given. Minorca EGGS for SALE. -- Apply J. Woolf, Barnstaple Street, Bideford."

On 16 Nov 1909 the Bideford and North Devon Weekly Gazette [p4 c1] carried the following advert - “RABBITS. --Best price given DAILY for good TRAPPED RABBITS. Any quantity of good MOLESKINS wanted. – J. Woolf. Barnstaple Street. East-the-Water. Bideford”

Wood, Pollard and Co., of Barnstaple Street?, culm mine proprietors, ?-1843 till 1844-?

The reference, in 1843, to the company owning a lighter (or barge) suggests it was near the river, and therefore the Barnstaple Street mine. The river, however, did come nearer to the Chapple Park mine in those days, so this remains a working hypothesis.

In 1843 Edward Redecleave was aquitted of stealing rope and sails from a lighter belonging to “Wood, Pollard & Co., of the culm mines near Bideford.” A “lighterman named Jones, in the employ of the injured parties[i.e. Pollard & Wood], swore to the rope.” [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 13 April 1843 p3 c2, “Bideford” North Devon Journal 30 March 1843 p3 c3]

Pigots 1844 directory lists, “Wood & Pollard, culm proprietors, East-the-Water” [Slater, I. Pigot & Co.'s Royal National and Commercial Directory and Topography of the Counties of Berkshire, Dorsetshire, Monmouthsire, Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire, Cornwall, Hampshire, Somersetshire, Devonshire, Herefordshire, Wiltshire and North and South Wales. 1844. [Part 1: Berks to Glos], Manchester:I. Slater, 1844.]

Wyvern Classical Organs Ltd, location unknown, electronic organ manufacturers, ?-1986 till 1994-?

Probably a development of Wyvern Organ Builders Ltd., they became Renatus Ltd, who now trade from the Alverdiscott Road Industrial Estate, East-the-Water.

“19/6/1986 Wyvern Organs Bideford produced the wold's largest computerised electronic organ.” [http://genuki.cs.ncl.ac.uk/DEV/DevonMisc/NDJ-LookingBack5.html. Accessed 18-8-2014.]

Wyvern Organ Builders Ltd. Old Schoolhouse, Torrington Street, electronic organ manufacturers?-1966-?

Manufactured organs in Bideford from 1966. At one time based in Torrington Street.

Schools

East-the-Water Infant (Board) School, Torrington Street, 1874 till 1894-?

The Western Times of 9 Jul 1875 [“Bideford” p8 c4] noted that Mr. Rob Hookway was appointed architect for the new schools, East-the-Water, the building of which will commence on Monday.”

On 19 Aug 1875 the North Devon Journal reported ["Bideford" p2 c4] that the plans for a new School, East-the-Water had been laid before the United Sanitary Authority, as being in accord with byelaws.

On 16 July 1875 the Western Times [“Bideford” p6 c4] reported that, as the new school was near completion it had been decided to advertise for a certificated mistress.

Various papers are held in North Devon Records Office (ref. B 125). The catalogue states 'The Infant (Board) School in Torrington Street, East the Water, was built in 1874.'

On 28 Jul 1891 The Bideford Weekly Gazette announced [p4 c3] that the Bideford School Board were were inviting tenders for the construction of a "new gallery at their East-the-Water Board School"

On 1 May 1894, the Bideford Gazette [p4 c1] carried an advertisement for an assistant mistress post at the East-the-Water Board Infant's School.

East-the-Water Junior School, 1932-?

Various papers are held in North Devon Records Office (ref. B 125). The catalogue states 'A Junior School was established in 1932 and was so overcrowded by the 1950s, that part of the School was accommodated in the Bethel Chapel. The School is now located at Mines Road.'

East-the-Water Primary School

Various papers are held in North Devon Records Office (ref. B 125, ED 161/3153). The ED record series starts in 1952.

Independent School, ?-1862-?

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 2 Sep 1862 [p4 c2] carried the following "The Independent School at East-the-water had their anniversary last Thursday. There were about 50 scholars present, who enjoyed themselves with all the zest of East-the-water children at a holiday. Mr. Turner, of the Barton kindly lent the field. This little school, the only one, we believe, in this neglected district, is flourishing under the blessing of God on the self-denying labours of its one male and a few female teachers; but it wants for help from those who could give up their Sabbath afternoon for the love of Christ."

Jewell, John, schoolmaster, of East-the-Water, ?-1824 till 1830-?

See entry in the list of traders for full details.

Places of Worship

Bethel Chapel, independent, 1877 till present

In March 1876 the North Devon Journal [“Bideford” 2 March 1876 p6 c3] carried an article on a meeting of the Bridge Trust at which the trustees, chaired by the rector, the Rev. F.L. Bazeley, at which the letting out of a portion of the bridge land, East-the-Water, was discussed. One trustee called for reconsideration, in that it might be better used for improving the entrance to the station, the existing path by the side of it being inadequate to the needs of the town. The Chairman, the Rev. Bazeley, remarked that he had hoped to have secured the site for the erection of a church or chapel-of-ease, but quite agreed about the need for a better approach to the railway station

The North Devon Journal of 09 August 1877 [“Bazaar in Aid of the New Bethel” p8 c1], in reporting on a fund-raising bazaar, mentioned that “for several years past religious services have been held in a loft over some stores, and have been conducted chiefly by lay members of different denominations in the town. The mission is purely unisectarian, and has prospered so much that the room was found altogether too small to accommodate the congregation, so that about twelve months ago it was determined by a few spirited individuals to purchase eligible buildings which were then offered for sale, and at an outlay of 600l., including the necessary alterations, a very handsome hall has been built.”

Opening service covered 13 September 1877 by the North Devon Journal

Fisherman's Mission Church (the Iron Church), Anglican, 1880 till c1890?

North Devon Records Office contains papers (ref. 799A/PI 195-197) entitled 'Faculty for performance of Divine Service in an Iron Church in Barnstaple Street, East-the-Water with account for building and notices of articles required in church.' These are dated 1880.

In reporting the foundation laying for St Peter's, the Bideford Weekly Gazette ["A New Church For Bideford" 08 October 1889 p3 c2] looks back upon the history of the Iron Church and its relationship to the new building.
“Some eight or nine years ago, in order to meet the requirements of the churchpeople of Bideford the Rector (Rev. R. Granville) and a few friends erected a suitable iron church, which has ever since done good service in the cause for it was set up. It was built on the
Clarence Wharf under rather disadvantageous circumstances, as a heavy ground-rent of £25 a year has had to he paid. For some time past the Rector has had in view either the removal of the iron church to a cheaper and, if possible, a more central position, or the erection of an entirely new church of stone. He was lately fortunate in being able to purchase such a site on the Grange Estate from Mr. Lavington Rooker, and the determination was made to sell the iron church and erect a new one in stone.”

The Iron Church was still in use at this time as the article recounts that a special service took place there to mark the foundation laying.

St Peter's Church, Anglican, c1890-

A NEW CHURCH FOR BIDEFORD
CEREMONY OF LAYING THE FOUNDATION-STONE
Some eight or nine years ago, in order to meet the requirements of the churchpeople of Bideford the Rector (Rev. R. Granville) and a few friends erected a suitable iron church, which has ever since done good service in the cause for it was set up. It was built on the
Clarence Wharf under rather disadvantageous circumstances, as a heavy ground-rent of £25 a year has had to he paid. For some time past the Rector has had in view either the removal of the iron church to a cheaper and, if possible, a more central position, or the erection of an entirely new church of stone. He was lately fortunate in being able to purchase such a site on the Grange Estate from Mr. Lavington Rooker, and the determination was made to sell the iron church and erect a new one in stone. Mr. R. T. Hookway, of Bideford, prepared plans, which were accepted, showing a very neat structure in the early English style. It will be built of local stone, with Bath dressings, and seated with chairs. It will consist of nave, chancel, and porch, and will have a spire. The chancel will be larger than that of the Iron Church, but in other respects it will seat about the same number as that building, namely, 350. The cost will be something under £1,000, of which the Rector has himself promised £650, while the sale of the iron church and the help of friends will, it is hoped, enable the building to be opened free of debt about Lady-day next. The sum of £120 has been realised by a bazaar for a new organ, and the children of Bideford are collecting funds for a handsome font. Should an enlargement of the church be at any time desirable this can be done by building an aisle on the south side. The architect, as stated above, is Mr. R. T. Hookway, and the contractor, M. T. H. Glover, of Abbotsham." The names of the committee are listed, followed by an account of the service of foundation laying that had taken place the prior Wednesday., which included a special service in the iron church, peals of bells from St Mary's and the placing of a time-capsule beneath the foundation stone (a glass bottle containing several local newspapers, a copy of the Church Times, and a few coins from the year). ["A New Church For Bideford" Bideford Weekly Gazette 08 October 1889 p3 c2]

East-the-Water Primary School Fellowship, interdenominational

Persisted for several years, meeting in the school in Mines Road.

Wesleyan Chapel

In October 1860 arrangements were under way for a Wesleyan Chapel in East-the-Water, for which a site had already been secured. [“Wesleyan Chapel for East-the-Water” Bideford Weekly Gazette 09 October 1860 p4 c1]

Inns, Public Houses and Hotels

See also the independently produced research at http://pubshistory.com/Devon/Bideford/index.shtml

Admiral Glynn, anecdotal

Paul Baker suggests that there a pub called the ‘Admiral Glynn’ in Torrington lane. [Paul Baker, cited in Editor's note. Lost pubs of Bideford, http://bidefordbuzz.org.uk/history/lost-pubs-of-bideford/. Accessed 20/3/2016]

Admiral Henry Richard Glynn (1768-1856) was a former mayor of Plymouth and a resident of East the Water. He was promoted to Admiral of the Blue in 1846. Obituaries for him appeared in the press in Australia and Scotland.

No firm evidence has yet emerged for an establishment of this name. On Wood's plan of 1842 Admiral Glynn's house is marked in a similar manner to certain Inns, thus providing scope for confusion. It could, however, be much more recent than that.

Barnstaple Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1842 till 1844-?

The landlady of the 'Barnstaple Inn,' east the water, requests us to correct a mis-statement in our paper of the 11th ultimo : she was fined £2 6s 6d. for drawing beer on a Sunday, but it was not during the hours of divine service (as we inadvertently stated), but at 10 o'clock in the forenoon.” [“Bideford.” North Devon Journal 08 November 1838 p3 c2]

Wood's plan, drawn in 1842, marks the Ba'staple Inn in the location later occupied by the Princess Royal Inn, to the immediate north of the bottom of Vinegar Hill.

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Taverns & Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was John Hopgood.

Note that there was an anchor smith named John Hopgood in East-the-Water at about this time.

Believed to have continued as the Princess Royal Inn.

Blacksmith's Arms, Torrington Street, ?-1822 till present

Currently no. 23 Torrington Street

A date stone on the premises reads as follows (though it is not clear that the property has operated as an Inn/Pub since the property was built):

M
I M
1741

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Taverns and Inns. Address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Thomas Clarke.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Taverns & Public Houses as “Blacksmith's Arms, Thomas Lile, East the Water”

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Hotels and Taverns, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Thomas Lile.

Thomas Lile listed in 1851 census as Inn Keeper at Blacksith's Arms, Torrington Lane.

In 1873, one Mr. William Ley of 61, Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn, London, appears to have been responsible for a range of property in Bideford and Kilkhampton coming up for auction, including “A Freehold Inn, called the 'BLACKSMITH'S ARMS'” also a “Freehold Dwelling Houses and Premesis, called ORLEIGH HOUSE” as well as 13 other unnamed premises including some in Torrington Street and Barnstaple Street. [“Devon and Cornwall” North Devon Journal 11 September 1873 p1 c2]

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory under the name of its victualler, address given as Torrington St. Victualler William Dodds.

In 1879 the press throughout the land was focussed on the so-called “Euston Square Mystery,” a murder in which an anonymous corpse was found at the home of Mr. & Mrs. Bastendorff, 4 Euston Square. The spotlight turned upon the Blacksmith's Arms when the North Devon Journal proposed that the victim was one Hannah Dobbs, daughter of the Blacksmith's William Dobbs. Hannah had earlier visited Bideford and written to Euston Square to summon a Mr. Bastendorff, who then posed as her husband whilst the couple stayed at the Blacksmiths' Arms. She was thought to be missing, but was later discovered to be in prison for felony. On her visit to Bideford, Hannah had been seen with a watch and chain. Once the identity of the victim was finally discovered, as a Miss. Hacker, this watch and chain were traced to a pawn shop and positively identified as belonging to the victim. The shop-owner, however, confirmed that it was Hannah who had pawned them, thus potentially implicating Hannah in the crime. [“The Euston Square Mystery” North Devon Journal 22 May 1879 p5 c6]. Hannah was acquitted at trial [North Devon Journal 10 July 1879 p2 c4]. Bastendorff, who was subsequently convicted of perjury, for stating that he had not committed adultery, and spent twelve months in jail. Then, a later pamphlet, purporting to contain the sensational statement of Hannah Dobbs, and accusing Mr. Battendorff of both serial murder and adultery, was later retracted by its publisher, after Battendorff sued for libel. [“The Euston Square Mystery” North Devon Journal 3 February 1881 p3 c4]. The whole proceedings made for a particularly juicy scandal. Hannah's parents, after many years employment in service to Mr. William Turner of the Barton, near Bideford, had then “for a long time occupied the Blacksmith's Arms, East-the-Water, as tenants of Mr. Barrow, a local brewer. The house is a small, old-fashioned, and unattractive tavern, but apparently pretty well accustomed as a place of refreshment.” [“The Euston Square Mystery” North Devon Journal 29 May 1879 p3 c2]

Listed in Kelly's 1893 Directory as 'Barrow Robert & Son, brewers, East-the-Water brewery, Torrington st. & Blacksmiths' Arms P.H. East-the-Water'

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Barrow Robert & Son, brewers, East-the-Water brewery, Torrington street & Blacksmiths' Arms P.H. Torrington street, East-the-Water

'The Blacksmith's Arms at East-the-Water was sold for £800 at an auction to Messrs S W Arnold &Sons. ' ["One hundered Years Ago: March 1914" Bideford Buzz, 27 Feb 2014 https://bidefordbuzz.org.uk/2014/02/one-hundred-years-ago-march-1914/ accessed 23/3/2016]

The Bideford Magistrates yesterday confirmed the removal of the license of the Blacksmith's Arms, East-the-Water, to the adjoining premises.” [“Bideford” Western Times 02 March 1915 p2 c2]

"The Licence of the Blacksmiths Arms, East–the-Water, has been transferred to the adjoining premises. The tenant is Mr Beer. Structural alterations to the New Inn have been approved and the tenant is Mr R G Court. Police sergeant Doidge said the police had no objections and the magistrates approved the changes." ["One Hundred Years Ago: March 1915" Bideford Buzz. Posted on February 23, 2015 by Tango Alpha. Online:http://bidefordbuzz.org.uk/2015/02/one-hundred-years-ago-march-1915/ accessed 23/3/2016]

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory under Arnold S. W. & Sons as a public house. Address given as Torrington Street.

Local tradition suggests that the premises was once known colloquially as “The Admiral's Arms” (which was possibly because Admiral Glynn lived next door) [Derek Barnes, 2016]

Cavalier's Arms (corruption of Curriers' Arms)

Anecdotal name and almost certainly a corruption of Currier's Arms, as the name is used when talking about that establishment. The erroneous name seems to have passed into general circulation amongst long-standing East-the-Water residents.

Curriers' Arms (later Terminus Inn), Barnstaple Street, ?-1822 till 1839-?

A currier was a leather-worker who applied dressings and finishes to a tanned hide to render it more suitable for use in clothing. The presence of a Currier's Arms may reflect the manufacture of foot-ware in the area, where it was once the fourth commonest occupation (the 1841 census lists fourteen shoemakers and one shoe-binder in East-the-Water).

The Curriers' Arms is listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Taverns and Inns. Address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was William Palmer.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Taverns & Public Houses as “Curriers' Arms, Richard Lake, East the Water”

Offered for sale by auction “The Fee Simple of all that other well accustomed Inn or Public House, called the CURRIERS' ARMS, with a Courtlage and Garden behind the same, situate East the Water, in Bideford aforesaid, now in the occupation of Mr. Richard Balch, as Tenant from year to year.
“The above premises are in complete repair having been recently re-built at a considerable expense.” [North Devon Journal 24 May 1832 p1 c1] The dealing solicitor was Skelton of Bideford, and the advert dated 17 May 1832.

In June 1833, at Bideford, Mr Stephen Balsh, youngest son of Mr. Balsh, of the Currier's Arms, married Mary, daughter of Mr. William Lile, of Monkleigh [“Marriages” North Devon Journal 27 June 1833 p4 c3]

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Blanch Richerd, Curriers Arms, East the Water”

Continued as the Terminus Inn (the 1861 Census has Richard Bulch, aged 59, as Innkeeper at the Terminus Inn).

London Inn/New London Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1822 till c. 1872-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Taverns and Inns. Address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was John Daniel.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Taverns & Public Houses as “London Inn, John Daniel, East the Water”

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Daniel John, New London Inn, East the Water”

On the 11 Jun 1842 Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette [“North Devon” p3 c5] reported that “On Sunday last, Thomas Newman found a fine sturgeon in the river above the Bridge, left by the preceding tide; its length 8 feet 4 inches, and weighed 120 lbs. The fish was shewn on Sunday and Monday at the London Inn East the Water, and sold on Tuesday in pieces.”

Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 03 August 1844 [“North Devon” p3 c5] reported “ John Daniel, of the London Inn, East-the-Water, was fined £2 for assaulting Daniel West, a boy about thirteen years of age, and setting his dog at him, which bit his leg.”

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Hotels and Taverns, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was John Daniel.

The 1851 Census listing for the London Inn, Barnstaple Street, has John Daniel, aged 82, Coal Merchant, born Hartland. With him are his son James Daniel, aged 41, a journeyman shipwright, born in Bideford, and his daughter-in-law Harriet Daniel, aged 41, Innkeeper, born Parkham.

The North Devon Journal of 18 December 1851 [“Bideford” p5 c1] carried a report of the annual dinner for the workmen of the Anthracite Mine that was given by J. S. Ley, Esq., at the 'London Inn,' where the dinner was hosted by John Danniel.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Taverns and Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was John Daniel

In 1857 James Daniell, landlord of the ;New London Inn,' East-the-Water was summoned for drawing beer on Sunday, the magistrates decision was deferred [North Devon Journal 26 Feb 1857 p8 c3]

In 1857 the “Old-established Inn, called 'THE NEW LONDON INN,' with the Stables, Brewhouse, &c., in Bideford, let to Mr. R. G. Giddy”, was part of the property of the late James Smith Ley, Esquire, of Durrant House, that was auctioned off as a result of the chancery action Ley v Ley [“Freehold & Leasehold Estates” North Devon Journal 27 August 1857 p1 c3]. It appears that Giddy, a maltster, had leased the Inn from Ley and installed Daniel as his license holder.

On 14 July 1863 The Bideford Weekly Gazette carried notice of an auction of a freehold dwelling house in Torrington Lane, East-the-Water, currently in the occupation of Mr James Plucknett, to take place at Dannell's New London Inn, East-the-Water.

On 11 Sep 1873 the North Devon Journal ["Borough Magistrates Petty Sessions" p3 c3] reported that, on the previous Monday, the 8th, "At an early hour their was a great crowd assembled outside the Town Hall to witness the unusual combination of Good Templars and licensed victuallers to oppose the application made by Mr. George Heard, for the renewal of the licence of the New London Inn, East-the-Water, Bideford. For days past the inhabitants of the town have been waited on by leading members of the temperance cause, and strongly supported by some of the landlords of the principal hotels of the town, praying the magistrates not to grant Mr. Heard's application." In the event, all that happened was that the Clerk announced that Mr. Heard had withdrawn the application for the present!

“In 1874, in support of a licence for Mr. Heard's new hotel (later the Royal), Mr. Heard's advocate advanced the argument that “a portion of the proposed hotel would be built on what was formerly the site of the London Inn. This Inn had been purchased by the Railway Company for the purpose of improving their entrance into the Railway Station, and they had taken down a portion of the London Inn for that purpose. Had Mr. Heard, when he purchased the London Inn of the Railway Company, built up the end wall to the same old building, he would then have had an indefeasible right to come and ask this Bench to renew his licence.” [North Devon Journal 03 September 1874 p2 c4]

Princess Royal Inn, 7 Barnstaple Street, ?-1861 till 1907-?

Possibly named after the Princess Royal steamer that berthed nearby. In 1844 the building was called the Barnstaple Inn.

Listed on 1861 Census as “Princess Royal Hotel”

In 1867, giving evidence to a trial, “Elizabeth Colwell said she kept the 'Princess Royal' inn, East-the-Water” [“Charge of Robbing from an Employer” North Devon Journal 22 August 1867 p8 c1-2]

Listed on 1871 Census as “Princess Royal Inn, Elizabeth Colwill, Head, Widow, 50, Innkeeper”

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory under its landlady's name. Address given as Barnstaple Street. Victualler Mrs Elizabeth Colwill.

Listed on the 1881 Census at 7 Barnstaple Street as the "Princess Royal Inn" with George Cole, 47, Currier & Innkeeper”

In 1890 the inn was on the market, advertised as follows: 'TO BE LET, the “Princess Royal” Inn, East-the-Water (late in the occupation of Mrs Cole).-- Apply Robert Barrow, East-the-Water, Bideford.' [Bideford Weekly Gazette 11 February 1890 p4 c1]

On the 1891 Census the listing for this premises is for a 4 rooms dwelling with Anna Kemp, Wid, 48, as Landlady. So the Inn seems to have been let as rooms at this point.

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as 'Jenkins John, Princess Royal inn, Barnstaple street'

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 2 May 1899 [“This and That” p5 c2] carried the following note “At Bideford Police Court yesterday, Jas. Oke, landlord of the 'Princess Royal' Inn, East-the-Water, Bideford, was fined 10s. and costs, for selling brandy that contained 38.5 per cent of water.”

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Lake Wm. Princess Royal inn, Barnstaple st. East-the-Water

On 6 Jun 1907 The North Devon Journal [“Bideford Borough Sessions” p6 c5] carried the news that “The license of the Princess Royal Inn, East-the Water, was further temporarily transferred from Mr. W. Lake to Mr. Holmes. Mr. G. T. Prouse was the solicitor in the case.”

In September 1907 the inn was advertised for let. The details are unclear, but look to be “To LET, Michaelmas, FULLY LICENSED. PRINCESS ROYAL INN, East-the-Water, Bideford ; easy ingoing ; low rent ; most pr[????]er.-- E. Petter and Son, Anchor Brewery, Barnstaple. [Western Morning News 14 September 1907p2 c6]

In February 1908 another advertisement appeared “Princess Royal Inn, East-the-Water, Bideford, to be LET, immediate possession ; fully licensed; easy ingoing; low rent. --E. Petter and Son, Anchor Brewery, Barnstaple.” [“To be let” Devon and Exeter Daily Gazette 12 February 1908 p1 c3]

The 1911 Census list the premises as “Princess Royal”

Later continued as The Tree. At one point having an engraved glass on a door opening into Vinegar Hill, that proclaimed beer was a penny a pint [Eye-witness account, Derek Barnes]

Railway Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1844 till 1853-?

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Taverns & Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Wm. Lake (see also the Welcome Inn).

William Lake was listed on the 1851 Census as Innkeeper at the Railway Inn, Barum St.

On 10 January 1853, in the parish church at Bideford, Mr. James Berriman, of Clovelly, boot and shoe maker, married Mary Ann, second daughter of Mr. Wm. Lake, innkeeper, of Bideford. [“Marriages” North Devon Journal 13 January 1853 p8 c4]

Railway Inn was listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Taverns and Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Wm. Lake.

In 1864 the house of one Mr. Hammett, East-the-Water, is described as “(formerly the Railway Hotel)”. Hammett is shown on the census return in a house adjacent to The Terminus Inn (inferred to be the one to the north of The Terminus Inn). Mention of the The Terminus Inn appears in 1857, so the two were probably in different locations.

Railway Inn, Torrington Lane, ?-1878-?

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory under its victualler, Richard Kivell. Address given as Torrington Lane.

Royal Hotel, Barnstaple Street, c1874 till present

"Wood's map of 1842 calls the C17 building 'Old Work House'. " [“The Royal Hotel, Bideford.” British Listed Buildings. http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/en-375726-the-royal-hotel-bideford-devon#.Vw5AkUcw0Qc. Accessed 13 Apr 2016]

In September 1874 the case for a licence for Mr. Heard's new hotel was put before the Bench. This provides a succinct summary of what was proposed, explaining that “the proposed hotel would be a very superior one” and would incorporate the old London Inn, the Colonial Buildings and the land behind them up to the railway. A petition from seventy of the town's worthies was advanced to support the case. A novel feature of the hotel was to be a large refreshment room. to which parties from the railway station would have access, their being no refreshment currently available at the station. It was explained that stabling for 55 horses had already been constructed in Torrington Street, and that the whole of Mr. Heard's yard would also be utilised, providing parking for more than 50 carriages. A petition signed by 458 people was submitted in opposition (on the grounds that it would promote drunkenness), but this was dismissed. The licence was granted. [North Devon Journal 03 September 1874 p2 c4-5]

The North Devon Journal of 24 December 1874 [p4 c5-6] carried a prose sketch of the planned new venture, which now was given a name, “The Bideford Hotel.” The “Colonial Buildings” former history was briefly sketched, together with the observation that the part of Bidiford “East-the-Water” had once been more considerable i.e. affluent, than it had been of late.

The building work appears to have been undertaken in 1875

The North Devon Journal of 03 Jan 1889 ["Bideford.", p8 c2] carried a report that "The new Royal Hotel, East-the-Water, it is announced, will be opened for business on Monday next.", i.e. on 7th January. The paper for the next week, published on the Thursday, stated that the hotel opened “yesterday,” I.e. on 9 Jan 1889. [“The Royal Hotel” North Devon Journal 10 January 1889 p2 c4]. The former date seems the more likely. In confirmation of that, later papers carried an advertisement, dated 7th Jan. 1889, stating “THE ROYAL HOTEL, BIDEFORD (Adjoining the Railway Station) Is Now OPEN for Business. REPLETE WITH EVERY CONVENIENCE & COMFORT. REFRESHMENT BUFFET, AND DOUBLE BILLIARD-ROOM With Separate Entrances from the Railway Platform. Dated Royal Hotel, Mon at, Jan. 7th, 1889” [Bideford Weekly Gazette 26 February 1889 p1 c1]

1891 Census has, at Royal Hotel, Bideford, one George Heard, aged 70, Retired Timber Importer, born in Devon, and his wife Elizabeth J Heard, aged 56, also born in Bideford. Also listed is his son Stanley Heard, aged 30, Hotel Proprieter and Timber Importer, and Stanley's brother Hugh Percy Heard, aged 25, Artist, with their sister Mildred E Heard, aged 21, all born in Bideford.

The North Devon Journal of 26 Jan 1893 ["Bideford" p3 c5] reported that "A very successful subscription dance was held on Wednesday night at the Royal Hotel, Bideford, when to the strains of a capital local band dancing was well kept up till midnight. Under the capable management of Mr. Stanley Heard, the proprietor of the Hotel, these dances are becoming quite an institution, and are affording the resident gentry regular opportunities for social gathering and recreation."

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as ' Royal hotel, family, tourist & private; billiard smoking, dining & reading saloons; posting & livery stables; moderate terms on application to Stanley Heard, proprietor'

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Royal hotel, family, tourist & private; billiard, smoking, dining & reading saloons ; posting & livery stables ; moderate terms on application to R. Stanley Heard, proprietor

Listed in Kelly's 1919 directory as Royal Hotel, with no location. Miss N Folsy as manager.

Sailor's Inn/Sailor's Home/Sailor's Arms, Torrington Street, ?-1839 till 1908-?

It has sometimes been suggested that the Sailor's Arms was an earlier name for the Blacksmith's Arms, but the two operated across the same span of time and with different license holders, so were clearly different establishments.

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Lake William, Sailors' Arms, East the Water”

Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 31 August 1844 [“North Devon” p3 c5] reports that the license of “Wm. Lake, Sailor's Inn, East-the-Water” was stopped as the result of an objection, the license was then transferred to “Thomas Lord, of Northam.”

William Colwill, landlord of 'The Sailor's Home' public house, East the Water, was charged by Superintendent Sullivan with allowing gaming (card-playing) in his house on Saturday the 8th instant, contrary to the tenor of his license. --Defendant pleaded guilty ; and it being his first offence, the mitigated penalty of 10s. was inflicted on him, with costs.” [North Devon Journal 27 September 1849 p8 c1]

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Hotels and Taverns, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Wm. Coldwell. [sic]

Listed in the 1851 Census as Sailors Arms Inn, Torrington Lane [at that time including Torrington Street], with Elizabeth Colwill, head, aged 30, Innkeeper, born Bideford. Her eldest son is William and she is listed as married, so her husband is perhaps away on business.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Taverns and Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Wm. Coldwell. [sic]

In 1854 one Mr. R. G. Giddy had advertised, for let, “the Old Established House, known as the 'MARINER's INN,' Situate in Cooper-Street, [Bideford,] adjoining the quay.” [North Devon Journal 09 February 1854 p4 c2] The same gentleman was also involved with the Sailor's Arms. A year earlier, in 1853 Mr R. G. Giddy had thrown, at his residence in Bridgeland Street, a “sumptuous repast” for the parish scavengers, “useful public functionaries” (who were residents of the town that had “seen better days”). [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 13 January 1853 p8 c2]

In 1856, one Mr. R. G. Giddy, maltster “made application to obtain possession of a dwelling-house, belonging to him, which was held by Mrs. M. A. Thomas, after six months notice to quit had been given.” [“Bideford” Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 03 May 1856 p7 c5]

In August 1857 “Mr. R. G. Giddy” [Richard Gilbert Giddy] was the leaseholder of the New London Inn, in Bideford (presumably the one at the eastern end of the Long Bridge. [“Freehold & Leasehold Estates” North Devon Journal 27 August 1857 p1 c3]

In October 1857 the following advertisement appeared: “BIDEFORD, DEVON. TO BE LET with immediate Possession, the old established house known as the 'SAILORS INN,' and situate in Torrington Road, East-the-Water, with or without a COTTAGE attached, apply to R. G. GIDDY.” [North Devon Journal 29 October 1857 p1 c1].

In June 1858 [“North Devon Fifty Years Ago” North Devon Journal 18 June 1908 p6 c5] reported the death of Mr. Richard Thorne, shipwright, landlord of the Sailor's Arms, East-the-Water, aged 48.

Listed amongst several properties offered for sale by Mr. F. Lee. on Sept 12th, Bath House Bideford.

["Sales Auction by Mr. F. LEE. " Bideford Weekly Gazette 10 September 1861 p1 c3]

The North Devon Journal of 3 Sept 1874 [p2 c5] carried a report that "An [licensing] application was made for the reopening of the house known as the Sailor's Inn, in Torrington-street. It appeared that it had been occupied as a private house for the past three or four years, but the license was kept up. - Application granted."

The North Devon Journal of 18 June 1908 [p6 c5] announced the death of “Mr. Richard Thorne, shipwright, landlord of the Sailors' Arms, East-the-Water, aged 48.”

Ship on Launch, Barnstaple Street, ?-1822 till 1929-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Taverns and Inns (as Ship & Launch). Address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was John Embery.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Taverns & Public Houses as “Ship on Launch, John Embery, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Taverns & Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was William Elliot.

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Hotels and Taverns, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Geo. Sluman.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Taverns and Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Geo. Sluman.

Listed amongst several properties offered for sale by Mr. F. Lee. on Sept 12th.

["Sales Auction by Mr. F. LEE. " Bideford Weekly Gazette 10 September 1861 p1 c3]

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as ' Colwill Mary (Mrs.), Ship on Launch P.H. East-the-Water'

The Bideford Weekly Gazette for 11 July 1893 [p4 c2] carried the notice of the sale, by auction, of a Freehold and Fully-Licensed PUBLIC HOUSE, with a dwelling house adjoining." The public house known as the Ship-on-Launch, was "where an extensive and lucrative business has been carried out by the late owner for over 20 years." It had "a frontage of 43ft, and a depth of 106 ft." The sale was by "the executors of the late Mr Philip Colwill."

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Keates William Henry, Ship on Launch P.H. Barnstaple street, East-the-Water

On 23 Jan 1905, the transfer of the licence having been provisionally approved at the previous sitting, the transfer from William Keates to John Woolf was approved before the Borough Bench [“Licensing” Bideford Weekly Gazette 31 January 1905 p5 c3]

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory under Bond Ernest, with address as Barnstaple Street.

The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 03 March 1925[“Bideford Licenses” p7 c7] carried the news that the licenses for “the Swan Inn and Terminus Inn and Ship-on-Launch (East-the-Water) had been considered, that of the Swan Inn had been referred to the compensation commission, whilst the other two had been renewed.

The North Devon Journal 07 March 1929 [p3 c4] reported that the renewal of the license of the Ship-on-Launch had been objected to on the grounds of redundancy (i.e. that it was not needed). At which time the nationally low ratio of licensed premises to population within East-the-Water, one premises per 344 of population, was remarked upon. Sergt. lane stated that in twelve visits he had found only 36 customers at the Ship-on-Lauch and fifty at The Terminus. In the end the ability of the Ship-on-Lauch to provide a good cup of tea and place for workmen to eat their lunch swung the argument in favour of renewing the license provisionally whilst the matter was considered further by the compensation authority.

Swan Inn, Torrington Street, ?-1822 till 2004-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Taverns and Inns. Address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was W. Spearman.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Taverns & Public Houses as “Swan, Wm. Spearman, East the Water”

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “James Plucknett, Swan, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Taverns & Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was James Pucknett.

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Hotels and Taverns, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was James Pucknett.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Taverns and Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was James Pucknett.

In 1854 an auction was advertised, for “the residue of a Term of 99 Years, determinable on the death of the survivor of Two Lives (granted by the Feoffees of the Long Bridge of Bideford and renewable on payment of a moderate fine), of and in all that Old established and Well-accustomed Public House, known as the 'SWAN INN,' Situate on the East-side of the Town of Bideford, and now in the occupation of Mr. W. Colwill.”
The advertisement went on to state “The House contains on the Ground Floor, a good Kitchen, Parlour, Bar, Brew-house, Wash-house, Cellars, &c., with a Courtlage and Stable; also, an excellent Pump of Water. On the First Floor are Five good Bed Rooms, &c.
These Premises have been recently built, and are in excellent repair.”
Included in the same auction, and for the same term, was a dwelling house “Adjoining the above Inn, (late the residence of Mr. John Baller, deceased,) and containing on the Ground Floor , Kitchen and Offices, two Parlours, Closet; Hard and Soft Water; Garden, with Verandah round the same, &c., &c. The First Floor contains a Drawing Room, commanding extensive Views of the River Torridge and adjacent Neighbourhood; also five Bed Rooms, Dressing Room, &c., &c.
This house can easily be added to the above Inn [the Swan], and its situation (being a Corner House, near the Long Bridge, and the Bideford Terminus) makes it a most desirable property.” The property was subject to a “Yearly Conventionary Rent of 8s. 8d., and to a Heriot of 3s. 4d., payable on the death of each Life.” Further details of both lots could be had from Mrs. Baller or the auctioneer. It is possible that Mrs Baller was moving from the area, as she also advertised a separate auction for her household goods ans furniture [North Devon Journal 19 January 1854 p4 c2].

The earlier attempt to auction the Swan appears to have failed, as the Bideford Weekly Gazette of 21 Apr 1863 carried a notice that the Swan Inn was to be let, with possession, at Midsummer next. Application was invited, to the owner “Mrs. Baller, Bridgewater, Bideford.”

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory under the name of its victualler, address given as Torrington Street. Victualler John Dark.

Listed in the 1891 Census as 50 Torrington Street, residence of Catherine Dark, widow, aged 63, Innkeeper, neither employed or an employer, born in Bideford. Listed next-door, at 49 Torrington Street, was William Henry Dark, aged 30, Brewer, employed. [there was a brewery in Torrington Street, so possibly the Swan got a good deal on beer through this arrangement].

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as ' Dark Catherine (Mrs.), Swan inn, East-the-Water'

The Bideford Weekly Gazette for 24 Jul 1894 ['“Swan Inn”' p4 c2] carried a notice that the Inn, “together with the Dwelling-house, Courtlage, Cowhouse, and Buildings, immediately behind the same and adjoining the river Torridge” were to be put up for auction by “the Representatives of the late Mrs. Catherine Dark, and her tenant Mrs. Ware.” Offering immediate possession. Applications were to go to “Miss. Dark, on the premises.”

The license of the Swan Inn, East-the-Water, was transferred to John Alfred Crang.” [Western Times 05 March 1895 p5 c2]

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Dark Arthur Jas. Swan inn, Torrington st. East-the-Water

Listed in the 1919 Kelly's Directory as Swan Inn, under the name of Alfd. Jas. Dark, and located in Torrington Street. None of the others in the family are working in the Inn.

The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 03 March 1925[“Bideford Licenses” p7 c7] carried the news that the licenses for “the Swan Inn and Terminus Inn and Ship-on-Launch (East-the-Water) had been considered, that of the Swan Inn had been referred to the compensation commission, whilst the other two had been renewed.

The Western Times of 20 March 1931 [“Bideford Borough Sessions” p10 c2] reported that “Mr. Ernest Bond, licensee of the Swan Inn, East-the-Water” had been fined 2/6 for allowing his chimney to catch on fire.

In 2004 Guy MacDonald's guide to England rated The Swan Inn. Torrington Street, East the Water as a "friendly, unpretentious place to eat scampi and chips or fresh fish." Pg 362

Now under new management and trading as a restaurant, The Riverbank

Terminus Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1857 till 1929-?

'The restaurant, the ‘East of the Water’ in Barnstaple St (opposite Wooda Surgery), is one of the oldest buildings in Bideford, and was previously The Terminus pub, due to its position opposite the railway goods yards, (now Ethelwynne Brown Close).' [Lost pubs of Bideford, http://bidefordbuzz.org.uk/history/lost-pubs-of-bideford/. Accessed 20/3/2016]

Previously the Currier's Arms.

In 1839 the Currier's Arms was under one “Richard Blanch”

In 1857, when discussing the state of the path way outside the Terminus Inn, it is referred to as Mrs. Balch's house. [North Devon Journal 29 October 1857 p8 c2]

The 1861 Census has Richard Bulch, aged 59, as Innkeeper at the Terminus Inn

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 2 Oct 1860 [p4 c4] carried the following advertisement: 'MANURE FOR SALE. To be SOLD, a quantity of MANURE.-- Apply to R. Balch, “Terminus” Inn, East-the-Water, Bideford.'

In a court case in Dec 1867 a Miss Ellen Blanch appeared as a witness and testified “the prisoner slept at her mother's house, the 'Terminus Inn,'” [“Incendiary Fire” North Devon Journal 26 December 1867 p8 c1]

The 1861 Census has Richard Balch, aged 69, as Innkeeper at the Terminus Inn

In 1867 the trial of an alleged arsonist, he is reported to have “lodged at Mr. Balch's, at the 'Terminus Inn,' East-the-Water” [“Incendiary Fire” North Devon Journal 26 December 1867 p8 c1]

1878 White's directory gives William Sluman as the Innkeeper at the Terminus Inn

1881 Census gives William Sluman, aged 46, occupation Inn Keeper, at “2 Barnstaple St (Terminus Inn)”

In 1882 the Local Board approved plans for “three new cottages proposed to be built on the site of the Old Terminus Inn, East-the-Water” [“Bideford” North Devon Journal 08 June 1882 p8 c1] It seems unlikely that they were then built as 1881 and 1891 censuses both have the Terminus Inn in the same location.

In 1886 the Terminus Inn appeared as one of the lots in an auction, at which time it was described as follows: 'All that excellent Public-house, known as the “Terminus Inn,” with Brewhouse, Stable, Courtlage and Premises, adjoining Lots 1 and 2 [Nos. 1 & 2 Barnstaple Street], now in the occupation of Messrs. Eldridge & Pope.' [

1889 Kellys directory has William Bird as Innkeeper at the Terminus Inn.

1891 Census has William Bird, aged 66, occupation Gardner, living in the location of the Terminus Inn. None of those resident with him are listed as innkeeper, beer seller, or the like.

1893 Kellys directory has William Bird as Innkeeper at the Terminus Inn.

In May 1893 the death was announced of Sarah, the wife of Mr. William Bird, at the Terminus Inn, aged 74. [“Deaths” Bideford Weekly Gazette 09 May 1893 p5 c6]

Listed in Kelly's 1893 directory as 'Bird Willam, Terminus inn, East-the-Water'

In 1894 the renewal of the license by Mr. J. Crang (owner) and George Henry Woolf (tenant) was objected to by the Women's Temperance League, on the grounds that the Inn had been badly conducted by its previous tenant, but, in this case, the landlord should not be allowed to abdicate responsibility for their tenants behaviour. The license was never-the-less approved. [“Important Licensing Matter at Bideford” North Devon Journal 27 September 1894 p3 c1]

The Bideford Weekly Gazette of 25 Jun 1901 ["Situations Vacant, Sales & c." p4 c3] carried the following notice of an auction "Short Notice. Terminus Inn, Barnstaple St., Bideford. Mr A. W. Cock is instructed by Mrs Phillips, to sell by Public Auction, on the premises To-morrow (Wednesday, June 26), at 2 p,m., the whole of the useful Household Furniture and Effects therein."

The 1901 census gives Anne Woolfe, aged 56, as “In[sic] Keeper Pub, on own account”

In August 1901 the licence of the Terminus was transferred from Mrs. Anne Woolf to her son George Woolf. [“Bideford” Western Times 30 August 1901 p6 c3]

Listed in 1902 Kellys Directory as Woolf, Annie (Mrs.), Terminus inn, Barnstaple st. East-the-Water

The 1911 Census lists George Woolf, aged 38, as Inn Keeper, residing at the Terminus Inn, a property listed as having 8 rooms.

In February 1922 the licence of the Terminus Inn, East-the-Water was not renewed, but on application “of Mr. J. C. M. Dyke (Messrs. Ford, Harris and Ford, Exeter), a protection order was granted until March 6th to Mr.Wm. Chas. Symons” [“Local & District News” Western Times 07 February 1922 p5 c1]

The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 03 March 1925[“Bideford Licenses” p7 c7] carried the news that the licenses for “the Swan Inn and Terminus Inn and Ship-on-Launch (East-the-Water) had been considered, that of the Swan Inn had been referred to the compensation commission, whilst the other two had been renewed.

The North Devon Journal 07 March 1929 [p3 c4] reported that the renewal of the license of the Terminus Inn had been objected to on the grounds of redundancy (i.e. that it was not needed). Sergt. lane stated that in twelve visits he had found only fifty customers at The Terminus. Never-the-less the license was renewed.

In February 1949 a fifteen year old boy named “Peter William Bowden, of Terminus Inn” found a body on Southcott Marsh. [“Missing Man Found in Stream” North Devon Journal 24 February 1949 p5 c6]

The Tree Inn, Barnstaple Street, 20th C.

Formerly the Princess Royal Inn

The Tree Inn was on the left at the bottom of Vinegar Hill. It used to have two entrances, the one off Vinegar Hill led into a snug and had a glass on the door etched with “penny a pint” [anecdotal, Derek, 6 Jun 2016]

Three Crowns, Clarence Wharf, ?-1822 till 1881-?

Listed in Pigot's Trade Directory of 1822-23 under Taverns and Inns (as The Three Cranes). Address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was William Mock. There was a Three Cranes inn in Exeter, which may be the cause of this confusion.

Listed in Pigot's 1830 Directory for Devonshire, under Taverns & Public Houses as “Three Crowns, Cath. Mock, East the Water”

Listed in Robson's 1839 Directory for Devonshire, as “Young Robert, Three crowns, East the Water”

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Taverns & Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Robt. Young.

On 29 Aug 1852 the North Devon Journal [p1 c5] carried notice for the auction of the property of Thomas Ley, who was about to leave the area. This property, most of which was west of the Torridge, included limekilns near Landcross Bridge and “Lot 7. -- The residue of a Term of 99 Years, determinable on the deaths of Three Lives, aged respectively 60, 58, and 56, in all that well-accustomed Inn, called the 'Three Crowns,' situate East-the-Water, in Bideford, now in the occupation of Henry Watts, as Tenant thereof; with a Policy of Insurance, granted by the West of England Insurance Office for £150, payable on the death of the Survivor of two of the Lives, subject to a payment of a Premium of £2 16s 7d per Annum.” It is possible that it was not sold as it appears again for auction a few years later.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Taverns and Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Henry Watts.

The North Devon Journal of 31 January 1856 [“Valuable Commercial Premesis for Sale” p1 c2] advertised the auction on 14th Feb next, of “The Residue of a Term of 99 years, determinable on the deaths of Three Lives aged respectively 63, 61, and 59 years, in all that well-accustomed Inn, called the 'THREE CROWNS,' and SMITH'S SHOP adjoining, situate East-the-Water, Bideford, now in the occupation of Mr. Henry WATTS, as Tenant thereof.” together with the same accompanying life insurance policy mentioned above.

The North Devon Journal of 30 June 1859 [“Bideford:” p5 c2] carried a report that the borough surveyor had reported “an encroachment” “on the public road in front of the 'Three Crowns Inn', East-the-Water, by the erection of a permanent hoarding.” Notice was given for it to be taken down.

The Bideford Weekly Gazette for 28 June 1859 [“Local Government Board” p4 c2] reported that the “the proprietors of the dilapidated buildings adjoining the 'Three Crowns' Inn, East-the-water, had erected a sort of hoarding in front of the property” and it was this which was the encroachment.

"I believe the ‘Three Crowns’ was in the old Clarence wharf some thirty-forty feet up stream from the Wooda Surgery." [Editor's note. Lost pubs of Bideford, http://bidefordbuzz.org.uk/history/lost-pubs-of-bideford. Accessed 20/3/2016]

North Devon Journal of 20 January 1881 [“Bideford” p2 c3] reported the reading of a letter, before the Local Government Board, 'from Mr. Liscombe, the Hon. Mark Rolle's steward, in a reply to a communication from this Board, calling attention to the dilapidated buildings called the “Three Crowns,” East-the-River. Mr. Lipscombe said that instructions had been given Mr. Hookway to re-build the place.'

Welcome Inn, Barnstaple Street, ?-1844 till 1853-?

From the 1851 Census this premises appears to have been at 1 Barnstaple Street.

It probably corresponds to the property listed on the 1841 Census at which dwelt John Holdmane, 50, Maltster, with one servant.

Listed in Pigot's 1844 Trade Directory under Taverns & Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Richard Lake (see separate entry under that name)

Listed in White's 1850 Trade Directory under Hotels and Taverns, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Wm. Lake (see also the Railway Inn).

Thomas Blackmore listed on the 1851 census as Innkeeper at the Welcombe Inn, Barum St.

Listed in Slater's 1853 Trade Directory under Taverns and Public Houses, when address given as East the Water. The proprietor at that time was Thomas Blackmore.

Other Institutions

Bideford Rowing Club, Clarence Wharf, ?-1891-?

"Season 1891. Notice. Practice has now commenced. Boat House: Clarence Wharf, East-the-Water. Bideford." ["Bideford Rowing Club." Bideford Weekly Gazette 09 June 1891, p4 c5]

Cemetery, Cross Park, 1889-present

"The Surveyor asked that the Committee should visit the new Cemetery before the caretaker took possession and this was agreed to." ["the New Public Cemetery" Bideford Weekly Gazette 25 June 1889 p5 c3]

Fire Station, location unknown, ?-1943-?

The North Devon Journal of 09 December 1943 [p5 c 3] carried a report of the "new Fire Station, East-the-Water" being in operation as part of a Fire Guard operation. The report gave no further details of the Fire Station.

This was probably a war-time precaution against bombing.

Gaol, Barnstaple Street, ?-1851-?

Listed on the 1851 Census

More detail concerning this is available in “The Royal Hotel: A Brief History of the Royal Hotel”

Homeless Hostel, 1978-1994?

In Pollard's House, 18 Barnstaple Street

Planning Application to convert into six self-contained flats approved in 1994

Prisoner of War Camp (on Gas-Works site), 18th C.

Used to house French prisoners of war

Workhouse (at some period prior to 1830)

Wood's map of 1830 marks as Old Work House, see details under New London Inn.

More detail concerning this is available in “The Royal Hotel: A Brief History of the Royal Hotel”

Miscellaneous notes

How, John, Commercial Wharf

In the later period Commercial Wharf was south of the bridge, on the western side, but How and Company were established c. 1900 and on the 1901 Census three cottages near Nutterberry have been re-named How Cottages, so How's business may have started on the eastern side. The company records from 1900-1980 are in NDRO, ref, B741]. [I have subsequently heard a suggestion, in a rather anecdotal manner, that How's Cottages were near the Ship on Launch. The cottages near the Ship on Launch appear, from other evidence, to have been called Elliot Cottages, or Shute's Cottages.

Harbour Master records

In earlier periods the Harbour Master only reported on the trade passing across the quay, as the East-the-Water wharves were privately held.

Unattributed coasting vessels

Listed under Coasting vessels from Bideford in Pigot's 1844 - To London – The Brunswick Gem, one of three operating a fortnightly service (along with the Thomas and the Robert), William Martin agent. These don't seem to appear in the local press. There was a Captain William Martin in Bideford.

Potential items of interest at the National Archives

It is possible that some of these could now be linked up to the work being undertaken by virtue of their date and they may, therefore, be duplicated in more relevant sections. Retaining them as a block is helpful in case the opportunity to visit the national archives arises.

The National Archives have a record in their Board of Trade and successors: Marine Maps and Plans section, dating from 1865 and described as 'BIDEFORD, DEVON; VARIOUS WORKS CARRIED OUT TO TO [sic] THE WHARF BY TH HEARD THE PLAN IS IN TWO HALVES; assent granted, 1 maps' (ref. BT 356/8031).

The National Archives – Ministries of Transport and related bodies hold a record in the Board of Trade Harbour Department: correspondence and papers, dated 1874 and described as 'River Torridge. Application by private person to acquire Foreshore for extension of private Wharf at Bideford.' (ref. MT 10/178/2).

The National Archives – Ministries of Transport and related bodies hold a record in the Board of Trade Harbour Department: correspondence and papers, dated 1884 and described as 'Bideford. Assent to amended plans of extension of private Wharf; acknowledgement of Crown interest in Foreshore: Unauthorised construction of Launch Ways ; alleged obstruction to Navigation; work removed.' (ref. MT 10/391/1 ).

The National Archives – Ministries of Transport and related bodies hold a record in the Board of Trade Harbour Department: correspondence and papers, dated 1893 and described as 'Foreshores. Assent to construct wharf in River Torridge at Bideford.' (ref. MT 10/620/1)

The National Archives have a record in their Board of Trade and successors: Marine Maps and Plans section, dated 1905 and described as 'RIVER TORRIDGE, CLARENCE WHARF, BIDEFORD, DEVONSHIRE; CONSTRUCTION OF STONE RETAINING WALL AND RECLAMATION WORKS BY DEVON TRADING CO.LTD.; assent granted; related to H7326, 3 maps' (ref. BT 356/9672)

The National Archives – Ministries of Transport and related bodies hold a record in the Board of Trade Harbour Department: correspondence and papers, dating from 1912 and described as 'Foreshores. Approval to the deposit of an amount of debris on the berth in front of a wharf in the River Torridge at Bideford.' (ref. MT 10/1472/8)

The National Archives – Ministries of Transport and related bodies hold a record in the Board of Trade Harbour Department: correspondence and papers, dating from 1911 and described as 'Foreshores. Assent to a stone retaining wall and reclamation works below high water mark in the River Torridge in front of the Clarence Wharf, Bideford. Draft conveyance for tidal lands. Solicitor's opinion on exemption of foreshore, reclaimed under a Crown conveyance, from land tax.' (ref. MT 10/1408/2)

Other sources to be examined

The 1830 Pigots directory is available online but has yet to be reviewed.

Wharfs located outside EtW

Wharf and quays are sometimes referred to simply by their name, so it is helpful to clarify which do not lie on the eastern side of the river.

Bibliography

The following sources have been consulted in addition to the newspaper articles cited in the text, which are too numerous to document in this Bibliography.

[Still need to expand the references below into full citations]

Nix, Michael. A Maritime History of the Ports of Bideford and Barnstaple 1786-1841. Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Leicester. 1991.

Pigot's 1822-23

Pigot's 1844

White's 1850

Slater's 1853

William White. History, Gazetteer and Directory of the County of Devon. Sheffield: William White; 2nd Ed. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1878.

Kelly's 1893

Kelly's 1902

Kelly's 1919

NDRO online catalogue

National Archives online catalogue

Bideford Buzz, Lost Pubs of Bideford

Alison Grant and Peter Christie, The Book of Bideford, Buckingham :Barracuda Books Limited, 1987

"Bideford History . . . with Peter Christie: Brunswick Wharf." My Town Bideford. Issue 28, July 2015. Publishers of the North Devon Gazette, 2015.

Appendix 1, Development of the railways

Early attempts to promote a line, 1832-c1845

Bideford and Okehampton Railway

The North Devon Journal of 30 Aug 1832 [p4 c4] reported a meeting between Mr. Hopkins, the civil engineer, for the Bideford to Okehampton railway, to consider a route from Cross Parks, via Alverdiscott and Yarnscombe, to Roborough, that being though the better for facilitating the transport of lime to the agricultural centres.

Robert Wollcombe (one of the subscribers of the Bideford and Okehampton Railway), in a letter to the editor of the Exeter Flying Post, published on 20 September 1832 [“Bideford and Okehampton Railway.” p4 c3-4], addressing the proposals for the railway, notes that “The bridge [sic] at Bideford, together with the town, being on that side of the river on which there is the least water, presents a barrier to its trade by creating the necessity of transshipping those articles from larger to smaller vessels, which are required for consumption, and now carried up the River Torridge. This Railway is, therefore, proposed to commence on the opposite side of the river, below the bridge, and at a point where the deep water will save the expense of barging, which is considerable.” the writer goes on to note the dependence of the area on Welsh coal and limestone, but also that each of the four Devon lime depots (Exeter, Okehampton, Taw, and Torridge) effectively exercised a local monopoly, forcing the market to come to the consumer, rather than the market to the consumer, and allowing inflated prices to be maintained.

North Devon Records Office holds two maps and a letter, all dated 1833, relating to the proposed Quay and roads at Crossparks, East the Water, by the Bideford and Okehampton Railway Company (NDRO ref. 1833).

Great Western Railway's possible involvement (foreshore purchases)

It has been suggested that the Great Western Railway bought the foreshore from the Buck family in 1833, but this needs further investigation. [Dereck Barnes, anecdotal, 21 Jun 2016]

North and South Devon Railway

The North Devon Journal of 12 May 1836 [p3 c1-2] reported on a further meeting to consider railway connections to the Taw and Torridge area. The thinking was still in terms of linking North and South Devon. Mr Woolcombe alluded to the “unsuccessful exertions which were made three years ago to effect a railway between Bideford and Okehampton.” He also described how the supporters of that venture had now been contacted, to encourage them to support instead the venture now proposed by the London, Exeter and Falmouth Railway Company, to create a North & South Devon Railway Company line, to which they would link. The people of Barnstaple were encouraged not to let their sense of independence prevent the extension of the line to Barnstaple.

Taw Vale Railway and Dock Act (Barnstaple to Fremington)

The people of Barnstaple, well aware of the desirability of linking their town with the deeper water port of Fremington, obtained the Taw Vale Railway and Dock Act on 11 June 1838. Despite this approval, it would be some years before work would start.

The Direct Plymouth and Bideford Railway

The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 11 October 1845 [p2 c1] carried the notice that “The Direct Plymouth and Bideford Railway” company had received a satisfactory surveyors report for their proposed line. Thus bringing an alternative route into the frame.

Brunel's support for a Bideford connexion

The North Devon Journal of 27 February 1845 reported on a meeting which it was noted that Mr Brunel was fully satisfied with the line he had proposed for the Launceston and South Devon Company from Tavistock to Launceston “and of supporting a larger object, which should embrace the additional advantages of connexion with Bideford and the North of Devon.” The meeting agreed to adopt this line.

The Railway Commission backs the North Devon Line, 1845

By 1845 the there were so many competing schemes being proposed to Parliament that a Railway Commission, led by Lord Dalhousie, was set up to single out those preferred schemes for each area that would receive further attention. In Devon, Dalhousie selected the Exeter and Crediton Railway (linking to the B&ER at Exeter) and the North Devon Railway that would extend the line from Credition to Barnstaple. On 4 March 1845 the Railway Commission recommended that a decision on these two be deferred, pending consideration of an alternative route from Tiverton to Barnstaple.

Revisiting the Bideford & Okehampton

On 19 Jun 1845 Woolmer's Exeter Flying Post carried the account of a public meeting held to discuss what attitude Bideford should take to the various competing railway proposals. [“North Devon Railways-The Bideford and Tavistock Railway. Important Public Meeting at Bideford.” p4 c4]. The extant proposals, and the speakers view of them, were summarised as follows:

This was effectively an attempt to update and revitalise the earlier Bideford and Okehampton Railway scheme of 1832, and to encourage the Railway Commission to re-think. The Flying Post article reports that a resolution was passed to support the first above proposal, and unanimously passed. At the time it was noted that the Great Western's involvement had been solicited, but had shown no interest in putting forward a scheme themselves. It is particularly interesting to note the recognition of the potential value of a line for the transport of clay.

This Bideford to Tavistock route was eventually scuppered, when it became clear that Tavistock was no longer to be linked to the wider system (at least not in the time-frame previously envisaged) [Sir R. Lethbride; The Bideford & Okehampton Railway; Devon Assoc. trans.XXXIV-1902.]

The Taw Vale Railway, 1845-1853

Plans for the Taw Vale Railway extension to Bideford

Although no construction had not yet started, there was still enough interest in the Taw Vale Railway for the passing of a Taw Vale Amendment Act on 21 July 1845. [“North Devon Raliway” Online:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Devon_Railway#Parliamentary_battles, accessed 21 Jun 2016].

The North Devon Journal of 04 March 1847 [“The Navigation of the Taw.” p2 c5] reported that on an Admiralty Court of Inspection where - “Turning to the river Torridge, and the proposed extension of the railway to Bideford, Mr. Neale stated that between the lime kilns and Brook's yard, at Bideford, an occupation arch of 15 feet was to be made.” The removal of various weirs and rocks within the wider estuary was also suggested. The proposals were approved.

Construction gets underway in 1846

January 1846 saw the first track laid for the Taw Vale Railway,from Fremington to Barnstaple [Kit Batten & Francis Bennett. “The Development of the Railways in Devon.” Printed Maps of Devon:1575 – 1837 Second Edition. Online: http://www.printed-maps-of-devon.eu Accessed 21 Jun 2016]

In July 1846 a public meeting of the inhabitants of Bideford, approved a petition to Parliament in favour of the Taw Vale Railway. [“Taw Vale Extension Railway” North Devon Journal 16 July 1846 p3 c2-3]

The act approving the [Taw Vale] line stated that it should “be leased to and worked by the Bristol and Exeter Railway.” “Certain parties interested in the Taw Vale purchased 1700 shares in the Exeter and Crediton - rumour had it that the money was furnished by the London and South Western Railway and, at a general meeting on January 11th, 1847, carried resolutions that the Exeter and Crediton be leased, along with the Taw Vale, to the London and South Western” [“Taw Vale Extension Railway” Grace's Guide to British Industrial History. Online: http://www.gracesguide.co.uk/Taw_Vale_Extension_Railway Accessed:21 Jun 2016].

Approval for an extension to Bideford in 1847

The Western Flying Post, Sherbourne and Yeovil Mercury of 27 March 1847 [“Railway Intelligence” p3 c6] reported that a special meeting of the London and South-western Railway had been held, at which bills were approved to “authorise the lease of the Taw Vale Railway” and “for making branches from the Taw Vale Railway to Bideford and South Molton.”

Woolmer's Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of 17 July 1847 [“Prorogation of Parliament” p8 c5] carried a brief note that “The Taw Valley Railway (Deviations, and Bideford and South Molton Branches) Bill, was read a third time and passed in the House of Lords on Monday.”

Barnstaple to Fremington opens in 1848, but horse drawn

In 1848, the broad-gauge Fremington to Barnstaple stretch opened for “horse-drawn coal and other goods traffic”. [Kit Batten & Francis Bennett. “The Development of the Railways in Devon.” Printed Maps of Devon:1575 – 1837 Second Edition. Online: http://www.printed-maps-of-devon.eu Accessed 21 Jun 2016]

The 1846 session of Parliament introduced bills for two prospective solutions for linking Barnstaple to the main railway network, the North Devon Railway Company (a Tiverton to Bideford line, with Brunel as its engineer) and the Taw Vale Railway Extension and Dock Company (effectively providing the Crediton to Barnstaple route proposed in 1845 for a North Devon Railway). The former was rejected on procedural issues, but the latter was approved [“North Devon Railway” Online:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Devon_Railway#Parliamentary_battles, accessed 21 Jun 2016].

Taw Vale Railway becomes the North Devon Railway and Dock Co.

In Dec 1851 the shareholders adopted a change of name from to the Taw Vale Railway Extension and Dock Company to the North Devon Railway & Dock Company, which was generally known as the North Devon Railway [“North Devon Railway” Online:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Devon_Railway#Parliamentary_battles, accessed 21 Jun 2016].

The North Devon Journal of 26 August 1852 [“North Devon Railway” p1 c3] reported a meeting to receive the report on the extension to Bideford, of a deputation to the directors of the North Devon Railway.

Powers to produce an extension to Bideford were allowed to lapse in 1854

The Crediton to Barnstaple line opened on 1 August 1854, but meanwhile the North Devon Railway had allowed their powers to provide an extension to Bideford to lapse [“North Devon Railway” Online:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Devon_Railway#Parliamentary_battles, accessed 21 Jun 2016]. By this time the Bideford Extension Railway Co. had presumably taken the lead.

Bideford Extension Railway Co. (Fremington to Cross Park, Bideford) 1853-1865

The Western Times of 11 June 1853 [“Railways” p5 c2] reported that the construction of the North Devon Railway was progressing well and that “The preamble of the Bideford Extension Railway Bill was proved in committee, on Tuesday last. This is a line in continuation of the North Devon Railway from Barnstaple to Bideford.”

Backed by commercial interests in Bideford, the Bideford Extension Railway Co. obtained powers on 4 August 1853, and a broad-gauge line was constructed. [“North Devon Railway” Online:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Devon_Railway#Parliamentary_battles, accessed 21 Jun 2016].

In the autumn of 1855 the first train ran to Bideford station. The town is estimated to have hosted 4000 visitors to witness the event and enjoy the accompanying celebrations, about 300 of which, by some contrivance, were left stranded on the platform at the end of the day [North Devon Journal, 1 Nov 1855 p8 c1]

London and South Western Company leases the line 1865-?

The London & South Western Railway (Exeter & North Devon) Act of 3 July 1860 provided, amongst other things, for the LSWR to lease the Exeter & Crediton Railway, North Devon Railway and Bideford Extension lines and to mix their track gauge [“North Devon Railway” Online:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Devon_Railway#Parliamentary_battles, accessed 21 Jun 2016].

The North Devon Journal of 12 May 1864 [p1 c3] carried notices of special meetings that unanimously adopted the amalgamation of both the Bideford Railway Co. and the North Devon Railway Co. with the South Western Co. These amalgamations where to take place on 1 Jan 1865.

The LSWR's Crediton to Torrington Railway 1872-?

LSWR forced to build a Bideford to Torrington extension, 1865

'As part of the tactics of gaining control of parts of the West Country, the LSWR had given a parliamentary undertaking in 1865 to extend the line from Bideford to Torrington. It tried to evade this responsibility, calculating that the declining importance of the town of Great Torrington — the "Great" was never acknowledged by railway usage — did not justify the expense of the line, but it was forced to comply with its obligations.' [“North Devon Railway” Online:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Devon_Railway#Parliamentary_battles, accessed 21 Jun 2016].

On 13 May 1865 the Sussex Advertiser & Weald of Kent Chronicle [“London and South Western Railway” p4 c6] carried a report that a bill had been adopted “authorising the London and South Western Railway Company to make and maintain a railway from Bideford to Great Torrington”

Work gets under way, but LSWR drag their heels

On 24 April 1866 the Bideford Weekly Gazette ["Torrington Railway" p4 c1] reported "The entire length of the permanent way has been staked out, and the works will commence shortly at a central part of the line. It is intended to complete the whole of the works within two years of the present time."

On 26 Dec 1868 the London Evening Standard [“Private Bills in Parliament” p6 c5] published a list of private bills for the coming session of Parliament, including “London and South-Western Railway (Bideford to Great Torrington line), Extension of time.

The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette Daily Telegrams of 20 February 1869 [p2 c1] carried a report that a meeting of the London and South-Western Railway company had approved the directors to introduce a bill “for extending the time for the compulsory purchase of lands for, and for the completion of, the authorised railway of the London and South-Western Railway Company from Bideford to Great Torrington.”

The new extension finally opens in 1872

The North Devon Journal of 23 May 1872 [“Bideford” p8 c2] announced that the new station was anticipated to open in June, with the line itself opening in July.

On 18 Jul 1872 the North Devon Journal [“Opening of the Bideford and Torrington Railway” p8 c1] carried a report that the line had passed its final inspection and that “Today (Thursday) [i.e. 18th Jul] the line will be open for general traffic.” It was observed that, though the people of Torrington had already been preparing for months, in the event their celebrations for the opening would not be ready, so they would delay their rejoicing till the Wednesday next [i.e. Wed 24th July].

A new Railway Wharf

On 4 Dec 1873 the North Devon Journal [“The Proposed New Railway Wharf at East the Water” 3 p8 c1] reported that Mr. Philip Colwill, and Mr. Waters, shipbuilder, had both been served with 10 days notice from the Railway Company to quit their yards “according to their terms of taking.” The Railway Company were also negotiating for the purchase of “some property adjoining.”

Later, East-the-Water related, references to the railway

Listed in the 1878-79 White's History, Gazetteer & Directory under the name of their station master, John Geoghegan. Address given as Barnstaple Street.

Plans for re-roofing the station were drawn up in 1889 (NDRO ref. B733/2/1)

Listing in Kelly's 1893 directory for 'Pridham William & Son, agents for the London & South
Western Railway Co. Bridge end' [Pridam had offices at the western end of the bridge, but his business also gives its address as the Railway Yard]

On 1 May 1894, the Bideford Gazette [p4 c1] carried an advertisement, by Appledore shipbuilder Robert Cock and Sons, for Larch timber, to be delivered by rail to Bideford Station.

An agreement, dated 14 Oct 1896, was drawn up between the London and South Western Railway Company and the North Devon Clay Company, Limited, for Enlargement of the wharf at Bideford Quay. A copy (with plan attached) is held at NDRO (ref. 3518B/L26). Given the parties involved this is likely to refer to a wharf in East the Water.

Several plans that may be relevant to the East-theWater sidings and Quay are held in the British Rail records at NDRO:

Stationmaster James Street is listed in Kelly's 1919 directory at 19 Barnstaple Street.

1929 "There is also a Quay, situated at East the Water, Bideford) belonging to the Southern Railway, 300 feet long, with 15 feet alongside at highest springs" [Lloyd's Register of Shipping. Volume 2, 1929. Page 625]

Bidefordian Derek Barnes recalled elephants and giraffes arriving by train in Bideford, bound for the Zoo, and pens full of pigs waiting to be transported . [Lost pubs of Bideford, http://bidefordbuzz.org.uk/history/lost-pubs-of-bideford/. Accessed 20/3/2016]

A photograph taken during the war also shows open railway wagons in the goods yards, full of “beach rockets” – destined for D- day training. [Lost pubs of Bideford, http://bidefordbuzz.org.uk/history/lost-pubs-of-bideford/. Accessed 20/3/2016]

"Up until the Second World War, for instance, all the life-boats and working boats for Readon Smith newbuildings were constructed by old established Appledore boatbuilding families such as Fords, the Hinks and Waters. As Appledore was never on the national rail network, once complete, the boats would be rowed on the flood tide up the Torridge to bideford, to the quayside sidings at east-the-water" [David Jenkins. From Ship's Cook to Baronet: Sir William Reardon Smith's Life in Shipping, 1856-1935. University of Wales Press, 2011. Pages 143-144] Photographs from the period show that, from there, they were distributed by rail.

Nationalized as part of British Railways in 1948.

Regular passenger services withdrawn Sat. 2 October 1965

Line closed in 1982





1"Launceston Then! The People: Thomas Percy Fulford." Launceston Then!, Roger Pyke. http://www.launcestonthen.co.uk/thomaspercyfulford.html Accessed 13 Apr 2016

2"Launceston Then! The People: Thomas Percy Fulford." Launceston Then!, Roger Pyke. http://www.launcestonthen.co.uk/thomaspercyfulford.html Accessed 13 Apr 2016

3"Launceston Then! The People: Thomas Percy Fulford." Launceston Then!, Roger Pyke. http://www.launcestonthen.co.uk/thomaspercyfulford.html Accessed 13 Apr 2016

4"We Said." Commercial Moter, 13 Sept 1968. http://archive.commercialmotor.com/article/13th-september-1968/3/we-said Accessed 13 Apr 2016

Updated 14 Mar 2017 by R. I. Kirby. Page 116 of 116